Reaction to study analyzing delta transmission in British homes

An analysis of 602 community contacts of 471 covid-19 index cases indicates that the secondary attack rate (SAR) for household contacts exposed to the delta variant is 25% in fully vaccinated individuals compared to 38% in unvaccinated individuals.

What do we know about how long COVID-19 vaccine protection lasts in children?

Scientists are still gathering data to better understand how COVID-19 vaccines last in both young people and older adults. For people over 16, current data suggests that COVID-19 vaccine protection can last at least 6 to 8 months. This is based on studies conducted by Moderna, Pfizer and BioNTech, and Johnson & Johnson as well as other pre-print and peer-reviewed research publications. Since clinical trials have found that the vaccines work similarly in adults and children aged 5-11, it is possible that vaccine-induced immunity may last for a similar amount of time in those groups.

COVID-19 vaccines do not alter human DNA

According to the United States National Institutes of Health (U.S. NIH), gene therapy is "...[A]n experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. In the future, this technique may allow doctors to treat a disorder by inserting a gene into a patient’s cells instead of using drugs or surgery."

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 29 October - Vaccine edition

This week, more on comparing vaccine effectiveness, third doses, and mixing-and-matching vaccines. Plus, incidence of asymptomatic infections, and the effects of vaccines on reducing Covid symptoms.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 29 October - Non-vaccine edition

This week, papers on longer range indoor transmission and differences in infection risks among different essential workers. Plus, statin as an infective therapy, long Covid in younger people, wastewater testing can provide an early warning of new variants, genetic factors that may explain differences in infection outcomes, the limited risk opening up schools may pose, and seasonal patterns of infection.

Australia's Therapeutic Goods Administration approves Pfizer boosters, to be available from Nov 8

Australia's Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) has approved booster shots of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine, to be administered six months after the second dose of any COVID-19 vaccine. The Federal Government has announced boosters will be available from Nov 8th.

Vaccine mandates for high-risk workplaces in New Zealand – Expert Reaction

Vaccination will be required for all workers at businesses where customers need to show vaccine certificates, such as bars and hairdressers. This means about 40% of the country’s workforce will be subject to vaccine mandates in their jobs, including the health and education staff already announced. The timing of this move will coincide with the shift to the new Covid-19 Protection Framework.

Valoración del Dr. Ángel Hernández Merino sobre estudios de efectividad de vacuna en adolescentes

Dos estudios, publicados en The New England Journal of Medicine y Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), hallan que la vacunación contra COVID-19 protege de manera efectiva tanto de la infección como de la enfermedad grave a los niños y adolescentes entre 12 y 18años. Ambos trabajos cubren períodos en que la variante Delta, más transmisible, era la dominante. El pediatra Ángel Hernández Merino valora estos resultados.

Expert reaction on studies reporting COVID-19 vaccination strongly protects adolescents against Delta

Two new studies published on The New England Journal of Medicine and the CDC Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), show that COVID-19 vaccination strongly protects against both infection and serious illness among adolescents age 12 to 18. Both studies covered periods when the highly contagious Delta variant was the predominant circulating strain.

Reacción al estudio que analiza las complicaciones neurológicas tras la infección por SARS-Cov-2 y tras la vacunación

Un estudio llevado a cabo con 32 millones de adultos de Inglaterra ha mostrado un pequeño aumento en el riesgo de sufrir síndrome de Guillain-Barré y parálisis de Bell, dos condiciones neurológicas, tras recibir la vacuna de AstraZeneca. También de padecer un accidente cerebrovascular tras recibir la de Pfizer. Aun así, según el trabajo, estos efectos secundarios son raros y las probabilidades de sufrirlos son mucho mayores tras la infección por SARS-CoV-2.

Reaction to the study analyzing neurological complications after SARS-Cov-2 infection and after vaccination

A study of 32 million adults in England has shown a small increase in the risk of suffering Guillain-Barré syndrome and Bell's palsy, two neurological conditions, after receiving AstraZeneca's vaccine. It also showed an increased risk of stroke after receiving Pfizer's vaccine. Even so, according to the study, these side effects are rare and the chances of suffering them are much higher after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


今(2021)年8月9日,一則發布在臉書的傳言說:「65%的Covid-19死亡個案都已接種相關疫苗,已接種感染者的住院率和死亡率亦高於尚未接種的感染者」。傳言的作者寫道「Covid-19疫苗充分地增加了Delta感染者的住院死亡風險」、「數據顯示接種疫苗的住院風險反增了48%」、「Covid-19疫苗並沒有將死亡風險降低95%,它反令接種者感染後的死亡風險增加了431.25%」。 這篇文章已引起眾多關注和轉傳,台灣科技媒體中心(SMC)希望能依實證醫學研究的精神,藉由專業領域之專家釐清民眾在傳言中產生的疑慮。

Rare neurological complications after SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination

A study published in Nature Medicine looks at neurological complications after the first dose of COVID-19 vaccines and after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

En las embarazadas es más importante la segunda dosis de la vacuna COVID 19 para desarrollar una respuesta inmunitaria completa-Reacción de experta

Un estudio en Science Translational Medicine demuestra que las mujeres embarazadas dependen más de una segunda dosis de la vacuna para desarrollar una respuesta inmunitaria completa. El trabajo arroja luz sobre cómo el embarazo afecta a la inmunidad contra el SARS-CoV-2, una cuestión aún poco estudiada. La obstetra Mar Gil destaca la importancia de que las embarazadas se vacunen, y de que sean incluidas en los ensayos clínicos.

Reacción al estudio que analiza la combinación de vacunas de AstraZeneca, Pfizer y Moderna en Suecia

Un estudio llevado a cabo en Suecia con más de 700.000 personas analizó la efectividad de la pauta heteróloga, consistente en combinar la vacuna de AstraZeneca con otra dosis de una de ARN mensajero, con la pauta homóloga tradicional, consistente en dos dosis de AstraZeneca. Los resultados mostraron una mayor protección contra la infección por SARS-CoV-2 cuando se combinaban dos vacunas diferentes.

Reaction to the study analyzing the combination of AstraZeneca, Pfizer and Moderna vaccines in Sweden.

A study conducted in Sweden with more than 700,000 people analyzed the effectiveness of the heterologous schedule, consisting of combining the AstraZeneca vaccine with another dose of a messenger RNA vaccine, with the traditional homologous schedule, consisting of two doses of AstraZeneca. The results showed greater protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection when two different vaccines were combined.


今(2021)年10月21日,國際期刊《自然》(Nature)公開一篇法國里昂國際傳染病研究中心(Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie Lyon, CIRI)的研究,探討混合施打AZ與BNT兩種不同廠牌的新冠疫苗後,產生細胞免疫的特性與效果。研究觀察13,121名護理人員的真實世界數據,發現混打AZ與BNT疫苗,比起施打兩劑BNT疫苗,可更好的預防新冠病毒引起的嚴重急性呼吸系統綜合症。研究團隊為瞭解混打這兩種疫苗的機制,觀察兩種疫苗不同的施打組合,發現兩種組合都可以引起很強的抗體反應,而混打疫苗的個體,血清中抗體都有更強的中和能力。此增強的效果,與轉化、活化B細胞辨認新冠病毒受體結合區域(Receptor Binding Domain, RBD)的頻率上升有關。 比起第一劑的BNT疫苗,AZ疫苗引起的IgG反應較弱,但引起T細胞的反應更強,作者認為這可解釋兩種疫苗混打後效果較好的原因。研究結論也提到,混打的方式可能特別適合免疫功能較低下的人。

Pregnant women depend more on a second vaccine dose to reach full vaccine immunity- Expert reaction

Pregnancy can affect how the immune system responds to COVID-19 infections and to approved mRNA vaccines, according to a new study published on Science Translational Medicine. The study demonstrates that pregnant women depended more on a second vaccine dose to reach full vaccine immunity, This finding help demystify how pregnancy affects immunity towards SARS-CoV-2 – an important but understudied topic. It also highlights the need to incorporate women at different stages of gestation into clinical trials.

There is no evidence linking COVID-19 vaccines with diseases like cancer or HIV

There is no evidence that COVID-19 vaccines can cause or are linked to increased risks of cancer. There are also no data that support a recent surge in cancers since the COVID-19 vaccination rollout began in late 2020. (It should be noted that most data for cancer incidence for 2021 has not yet been tallied). Most scientists have seen a decrease in cancer incidences as it is estimated that at least 20% of people have had to delay medical care and treatment, such as testing for cancerous maladies.

Valneva giving top line phase 3 results for its inactivated, adjuvanted COVID-19 vaccine candidate VLA2001

The press release from Valneva reports positive phase 3 results for inactivated, adjuvanted COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate VLA2001.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 15 October - Vaccine edition

This week, data on the effectiveness of a third Pfizer dose, and papers on the effectiveness of vaccines against infections and hospitalisations, mixed vaccinations, and against variants of concern. Plus, the benefit of vaccines for pregnant women and within households.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 15 October - Non-vaccine edition

This week, papers on immune memory after natural infection, a very potent antibody, a promising RNA interference therapy, Delta infectiousness, the frequent occurrence of long Covid, and differing estimates of transmission risks within schools.

What evidence should individuals weigh when deciding whether to get a booster dose of the Moderna vaccine?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

What evidence should individuals weigh when deciding whether to get a booster dose of the Johnson & Johnson vaccine?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

For individuals who were initially vaccinated with the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, what does the evidence say about a follow-up booster shot of an mRNA vaccine?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.


在台灣時間今(2021)年10月11日的晚間11點,國際期刊《美國醫學會內科醫學》(JAMA Internal Medicine)刊登一篇研究,標題為「Association Between Risk of COVID-19 Infection in Nonimmune Individuals and COVID-19 Immunity in Their Family Members」,研究團隊利用瑞典的國家數據登錄資料庫進行回溯性的世代研究(cohort study),研究發現在家庭成員中,越多人具有COVID-19的免疫保護力,其他沒免疫力的人接觸與感染COVID-19的相對風險就越低。 台灣科技媒體中心特邀兩位感染醫學領域的專家對此篇研究解析與評論。

COVID-19 vaccines do not change the color of blood

The blood of people who have received a COVID-19 vaccine is not visibly darker than the blood of vaccinated people.

What does science say about COVID-19 vaccines and male libido?

There is no evidence suggesting that increased male libido (i.e. sex drive) is a common side effect from approved COVID-19 vaccines. Similarly, there is no evidence suggesting that the approved COVID-19 vaccines lead to decreased male libido or fertility. Common side effects include pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, joint and muscle pain, which have the potential to temporarily decrease libido while the vaccine recipient recovers from minor side effects.

Covid shots mandated for health & education staff in New Zealand – Expert Reaction

All front-line staff in New Zealand who work in schools, early childhood education, and health & disability services, will soon be required to be vaccinated against Covid-19. Health workers must have both Covid shots by 1 Dec, while education workers – including administrators, maintenance staff and contractors – must be fully vaccinated by the start of January.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 8 October

This week comparing immune responses in natural infections and vaccination, declines in antibody and T cell responses, waning protection from infection, vaccine effects on transmission and long Covid, and the low risk of myocarditis. Non-vaccine reports include the effectiveness of Molnupiravir, Delta virulence, and the need for more frequent testing in Delta outbreaks.

Australia recommends booster shots for severely immunocompromised

Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) has recommended a booster shot be given to people who are severely immunocompromised. ATAGI says an mRNA vaccine (Pfizer or Moderna) is preferred over the AstraZeneca vaccine for this 3rd dose. They recommend the 3rd dose be given 2 to 6 months after the 2nd dose of vaccine. People who have had a second dose more than 6 months ago should receive a 3rd dose whenever feasible.

Reacción de expertos a las recomendaciones de la EMA sobre tercera dosis de la vacuna Comirnaty (Pfizer/BioNTech) y Spikevax (Moderna)

La Agencia Europea del Medicamento emitió ayer por la tarde sus recomendaciones relativas a la administración de una tercera dosis de las vacunas Comirnaty (Pfizer/BioNTech) y Spikevax (Moderna). Estas son las valoraciones de varios expertos al respecto.

Reacción de expertos a la posibilidad de dar una segunda dosis de Janssen a quienes recibieron la primera

Johnson & Johnson acaba de publicar mediante nota de prensa datos preliminares relativos a su ensayo con dos dosis. En ellos muestra que la segunda dosis aumenta la respuesta de los anticuerpos y, además, confirma la duración de la protección entre quienes recibieron una.

Expert reaction to the possibility of giving a second dose of Janssen to those who received the first one

Johnson & Johnson has just released preliminary data from its two-dose trial in a press release. It shows that the second dose increases the antibody response and also confirms the duration of protection among those who received one dose.

Expert reaction on EMA recommendations on extra doses and boosters

The European Medicines Agency issued its recommendations yesterday afternoon regarding the administration of a third dose of the Comirnaty (Pfizer/BioNTech) and Spikevax (Moderna) vaccines. These are the reactions of several experts on the matter.

Is Merck’s Covid-19 pill Molnupiravir a game-changer?

The Australian government has announced it has bought 300,000 doses of Merck COVID-19 treatment drug molnupiravir, although it has not yet been approved for use by the Therapeutic Goods Administration. Merck has released data from an interim analysis of an ongoing phase-3 trial of molnupiravir in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Below an Australian expert explains what we know about the drug and what it means for vaccines.

Why is making an HIV vaccine harder than making one for COVID-19?

There is no Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) vaccine currently available to prevent HIV or treat people who have the virus. There are several reasons why the production of HIV vaccines are taking longer than ones for other viruses such as SARS-COV-2. Namely, HIV is a more difficult organism to make a vaccine against.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 1 October - Vaccine edition

This week vaccine-related papers on when vaccine immune does or doesn’t decline, differing antibody responses to different vaccines, correlates of protection for the AstraZeneca/Oxford vaccine, and viral loads in vaccinated people.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 1 October - Non-vaccine edition

This week’s non-vaccine studies include the prevalence of long Covid, the high rates of Covid-19-related deaths, understanding what happens in the lungs in severe cases, more research into viral origins, and a correlation between authoritarian views and infection rates.

What is used as the control in human clinical trials of a drug or vaccine?

In clinical trials of a drug or vaccine, the control receives either a placebo or an active control, which is a safe and effective approved treatment. Placebo is the gold standard, but sometimes an active control is needed due to ethical concerns or to reduce bias in a study.

Which groups in NZ are at risk of under-vaccination? – Expert Reaction

While 80 percent of New Zealand’s eligible population is either vaccinated or booked in to get a Covid jab, challenges remain in reaching people on the rollout’s final frontier. The SMC asked experts to comment on: Vaccine access issues Māori vaccination rates How to reach under-vaccinated groups Pasifika people becoming more willing to be vaccinated Access for people with disabilities Accounting for unequal coverage when modelling the vaccine rollout

Immunkorrelat für Schutz vor symptomatischem COVID-19 nach Vaxzevria-Impfung

Forscher schlagen einen Mindestwert für einen Antikörperspiegel gegen SARS-CoV-2 vor, ab dem ein Schutz vor symptomatischer COVID-19-Erkrankung wahrscheinlich ist. Als sogenanntes Immunkorrelat definiert ein Team um britische Forschende in einer Studie im Fachjournal „Nature Medicine” (siehe Primärquelle) zwei solche Grenzwerte für zwei verschiedene Antikörper gegen das Pandemie-Virus nach einer Vaxzevria-Impfung. Anhand eines Immunkorrelats lässt sich bestimmen, ob ein ausreichender Immunschutz vorliegt oder ob beispielsweise eine Auffrischungsimpfung empfehlenswert ist. Schon seit Langem betonen Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler, wie wichtig es sei, ein Immunkorrelat zu kennen, mit dem sich zuverlässig in der Praxis und in der Forschung bestimmen lässt, wie hoch der individuelle Schutz gegen das Virus ist. Die Konzentration auf Antikörper lässt dabei wichtige Teile des Immunsystems – wie B- und T-Zellen außer Acht. Die Bestimmung dieses Grenzwertes geht aus der Fortführung der Zulassungsstudie für den COVID-19-Impfstoff Vaxzevria der Firma Astrazeneca hervor. Für einen Teil der originalen Studiengruppe von 4372 Probandinnen und Probanden lagen den Forschenden Daten aus einem von vier Antikörper-Tests vor, welche daraufhin in die Studie eingeschlossen wurden. Das traf auf 1404 Menschen ohne SARS-CoV-2-Infektion und 171 Durchbruchsinfektionen zu – also Personen, die sich nachweislich nach der Impfung mit SARS-CoV-2 infizierten (Die beiden vorherigen Sätze wurden nachträglich korrigiert, da sie einen falschen Bezug zwischen den Studienkohorten hergestellt haben; Anm. d. Red.) Die Forschenden analysierten, ob die Höhe der Antikörperspiegel mit dem Auftreten einer Infektion statistisch zusammenhing, also korrelierte. Sie fanden, dass ein 80-prozentiger Schutz vor symptomatischer Infektion gegen die SARS-CoV-2-Variante Alpha mit 264 Einheiten – sogenannter binding antibody units pro Milliliter Blut (BAU/ml) – des IgG-Antikörpers, der das Spike-Protein von SARS-CoV-2 erkennt, korrelierten. Für den IgG-Antikörper gegen die Rezeptorbindedomäne des Virus errechneten sie ein Korrelat von 506 BAU/ml für den Zeitpunkt 28 Tage nach der zweiten Impfdosis. In etwa vergleichbare Grenzwerte für die Antikörpertiter ermittelten Forschende bei Geimpften, die mit dem Impfstoff Spikevax von Moderna geimpft wurden [III]. Zu beachten ist allerdings, dass in beiden Studien die Konfidenzintervalle für die ermittelten Werte sehr groß sind – also noch eine größere Unsicherheit über die tatsächliche Höhe des Immunkorrelats besteht. Inwiefern das in der Studie ermittelte Immunkorrelat in der Praxis weiterhilft und wie sich andere Varianten auf seine Höhe auswirken, beantworten zwei Experten.

The CDC advises that some groups such as those age 65+ “should” get boosters of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. Others “may” get a booster. What factors should those in the second group weigh when deciding whether to get a booster dose?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

Can booster doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine be expected to slow the spread of COVID-19 infections? Or is the benefit purely a reduction in symptomatic disease?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

Boosters are available as soon as six months after the second dose. What does the evidence say about this timing versus a later booster dose?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

What do we know about the side effects of booster shots?

Currently available data suggest that the side effects from the COVID-19 vaccine booster doses are similar to side effects from the initial set of vaccine doses. Approved booster shots are considered safe and are currently recommended in some countries for people who are immunocompromised, people who are older than age 65, and people who are at higher risk of exposure due to their work (e.g. medical and other frontline jobs). 



How Can We Be Sure Vaccination against COVID-19 Doesn’t Cause Infertility?

Despite the fact that fertility experts recommend vaccination against COVID-19 and there are several studies showing no concern for fertility, many people still harbor fears. This article from a leading gynecologist explains the research that shows it is safe.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 24 September

This week Pfizer’s data on vaccinating 5 to 11 year olds, papers on the effectiveness of the Moderna vaccine, the effectiveness of several vaccines against different variants, the immunity boost from natural infection, and the need for more research on whether vaccination affects menstruation. Non-vaccine research includes years of life lost due to Covid, mixed results for Remdesivir, infectiousness of the Delta variant, an artificial intelligence success, paranoia and its influences, and underestimating infections from bats.

‘Very high’ vaccination rate needed to end lockdowns in New Zealand – Expert Reaction

A new modelling paper says that New Zealand may no longer need lockdowns if we vaccinate 90 per cent of the population. The paper authors say moderate public health measures like mask use and gathering restrictions may even have to remain at this high rate of vaccination, due to how transmissible the Delta variant is. See the Te Pūnaha Matatini paper and press release here: https://www.tepunahamatatini.ac.nz/2021/09/23/modelling-to-support-a-future-covid-19-strategy/. Note: this paper has not been externally peer-reviewed.

Pfizer and BioNTech announce phase 2/3 trial results in of COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 5 to 11

Pfizer and BioNTech have announced in a press release the results from a Phase 2/3 trial looking at the safety profile and antibody responses to the COVID-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. The trial used a two-dose regimen of 10 µg administered 21 days apart, a smaller dose than the 30 µg dose used for people 12 and older.

What do we know about vaccine distribution for children?

COVID-19 vaccines should be prioritized for older and medically vulnerable populations. In countries where vaccines are available and approved for children 12 and older, kids should be vaccinated if possible. More research is needed on vaccinating children under 12 but early research showing their safety and strengthening of immune system responses is promising.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 17 September - vaccine edition

This week there are lots of vaccine-related studies. Emerging evidence on the effectiveness of a booster dose for the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, and effectiveness of several vaccines in general, as well as against the Delta variant. Plus, comparing immune responses to different vaccines, evidence for vaccines reducing transmissibility, and vaccine-related myocarditis risks for boys. Non-vaccine-related papers are in a separate Tracker again today.

Neue Indikatoren der COVID-19-Strategie für Herbst/Winter – Rapid Reaction

Das Robert Koch-Institut hat diese Woche seine Strategie zum Umgang mit der COVID-19-Pandemie für den kommenden Herbst und Winter aktualisiert. Darin führt es auch ein neues Paket an Indikatoren ein, anhand derer die aktuelle Lage in drei Stufen – Basisstufe, Stufe 1 und Stufe 2 – eingeteilt, bewertet und in der Folge Maßnahmen angepasst werden sollen. Vor allem diese Indikatoren sind Gegenstand näherer Betrachtung in diesem SMC-Angebot und werden durch Fachleute bewertet; auch eine kurze Einschätzung der Lage findet Platz. Das Robert Koch-Institut setzt in seiner Strategie weiter auf die Einhaltung von klassischen individuellen Maßnahmen zur Eindämmung: Alle Menschen – also auch Geimpfte und Genesene – sollen sich in allen Lebensbereichen auch in der Basisstufe der Strategie weiter an Regeln wie Abstand halten, Masken tragen und Lüften halten. Ungeimpfte sollen sich in allen Settings schon auf dieser Stufe testen lassen. Mit höheren Stufen kommen vor allem in Bereichen mit Personen mit hohem Risiko weitere verschärfende Maßnahmen hinzu. In der höchsten Stufe 2 findet dann die 2G-Regel mehr Anwendung, also Zugang nur für Geimpfte oder Genesene. Das Strategiepapier ist ein Vorschlag des RKI, wie die einzelnen Bundesländer die Coronaschutzverordnungen ausgestalten können. Die Pandemie soll in Deutschland dem Plan zufolge also weiterhin durch Maßnahmen unter Kontrolle gehalten werden, allerdings eher mit individuellen Maßnahmen als mit Schließungen von Einrichtungen oder Einschränkungen ganzer Gesellschaftsbereiche. Andere Länder heben bereits alle Restriktionen auf, wie beispielsweise Dänemark, das Vereinigte Königreich und die Niederlande. Die Indikatoren: Zur Beurteilung der Pandemielage auf Bundesländerebene sollen zukünftig drei Indikatoren herangezogen werden: die Inzidenz, die Hospitalisierungsinzidenz und die durch COVID-19 gebundene Kapazität der Intensivstationen in Prozent. Für einen Wechsel in eine höhere Gefährdungs- und damit Maßnahmenstufe müssen bei zwei der drei tagesaktuellen Indikatoren die jeweiligen Grenzwerte an drei aufeinanderfolgenden Tagen überschritten werden. Das SMC hat die aktuelle Lage in den einzelnen Bundesländern anhand der Indikatorik des RKI folgend aufgeschlüsselt (siehe Tabelle im Corona Report vom 15.09.2021). Die Werte gibt das RKI mittlerweile von Montag bis Freitag aktualisiert in einem eigenen Dashboard tagesaktuell an. Bei ihrer Betrachtung sind gewisse Muster zu beobachten: Bei der aktuellen Teststrategie sollte immer zuerst die Inzidenz den Grenzwert zur nächsten Stufe übersteigen. Erst eine deutlich höhere Dunkelziffer oder ein geändertes Verhältnis zwischen Inzidenz und Hospitalisierung würde dazu führen, dass zuerst einer der anderen beiden Parameter den Grenzwert zur nächsten Stufe erreicht. In den meisten Fällen überschreitet nach der Inzidenz wahrscheinlich die Auslastung der Intensivstationen den Grenzwert, sodass die nächste Maßnahmenstufe ausgelöst würde. Die vom RKI vorgeschlagene tagesaktuelle Betrachtung der Werte verursacht allerdings große Probleme durch den Meldeverzug bei der Inzidenz, vor allem bei der Hospitalisierungsinzidenz. Letzterer Wert ist an das Meldedatum geknüpft – die Hospitalisierungsinzidenz liegt somit tagesaktuell viel niedriger als in der Realität. Das RKI scheint die Grenzwerte im Strategiepapier also auf der Basis der Werte ohne Nachmeldungen und damit eher niedrig gewählt zu haben, damit der Indikator die Situation adäquat anzeigen kann. Sollte es in den Bundesländern unterschiedlich starken Meldeverzug geben, müssen die Grenzwerte für das jeweilige Bundesland entsprechend angepasst werden. Einige Bundesländer nutzen für ihre Regeln Daten aus anderen Quellen, um die tagesaktuelle Situation genauer zu schätzen. Beim Vergleich der Grenzwerte in den verschiedenen Ländern muss darauf geachtet werden, dass die Grenzwerte je nach Datenquelle unterschiedlich hoch ausfallen und trotzdem qualitativ das gleiche Geschehen beschreiben können: Werden Krankenhauseinweisungen beispielsweise schnell erfasst und regional tagesaktuell abgebildet, spiegelt ein relativ zum RKI-Wert höherer Grenzwert eventuell die gleiche Grenze wider. Wie sinnvoll die vom RKI gewählten Indikatoren und die Höhe der Grenzwerte auch mit Blick auf die aktuelle COVID-19-Lage in Deutschland sind und was in den Meldewegen und ihrer Darstellung noch verbessert werden müsste, schätzen Fachleute nachfolgend ein.

6 tips for covering COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy

In 2019, the World Health Organization listed vaccine hesitancy as one of the top 10 threats to global health, so it’s important for journalists to shed light on the issue and educate the public about it. Here are some tips on how to cover it, from The Journalist's Resource

What do we know about the Novavax vaccine?

The Novavax vaccine is the remaining Covid-19 jab among the New Zealand Government’s pre-purchase agreements that’s under review by Medsafe, with doses expected to arrive early next year. Medicines regulator Medsafe approved the three other vaccines in the Government’s Covid-19 vaccine portfolio this year, with only the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine currently being used in New Zealand’s vaccination campaign.


今(2021)年9月6日《澳大利亞醫學雜誌》(Medical Journal of Australia)公開研究論文,使用數學模型探討澳洲2019年疫苗種類、接種年齡、覆蓋率等,對疫情直接和間接的影響。結果發現先讓較脆弱的族群施打疫苗,對於覆蓋率較低的國家而言,是較合適的策略。但在Rt值(平均每個病人可傳染人數的估計值)較低且覆蓋率較高的區域,為高傳播風險的族群接種疫苗會變得更加重要。如果是Rt值為5的情況,可能需要為包括兒童在內、超過 85% 的人口接種疫苗,才能達到群體免疫。即使沒有群體免疫,疫苗也能有效減少死亡。

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 10 September

This week, vaccines and infectiousness, differing results for Delta hospitalisation risks, effectiveness of a third dose, vaccine safety studies, and what influences vaccine hesitancy. In non-vaccine studies, rapid antigen tests, children’s strong innate immunity, the low risk from public toilets, and episodic mutation rates.

What do individuals with HIV need to know before they get vaccinated against COVID-19?

Individuals living with HIV can safely be vaccinated against COVID-19. As part of the authorization process that the available vaccines go through before being available for mass vaccination, clinical trials allow researchers to establish the safety of a vaccine. The clinical trials used to test the safety of the authorized Covid-19 vaccines included people with HIV infection, and were deemed safe. 


在2021年9月6日台灣時間晚上11:00,正式發表在國際期刊《自然》(Nature)研究標題:「SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 Delta variant replication and immune evasion」,由英國劍橋大學臨床微生物學教授古普塔(Ravindra Gupta)帶領研究團隊,從病毒學角度發現,相對於先前的變種病毒(Alpha、Kappa),最近在全球迅速傳播的Delta變種病毒(B.1.617.2),具有一些結構上的優勢特徵,包括:更快速的複製能力(replication)、更好的細胞融合&入侵能力(spike mediated cell fusion and entry)、較高的突破性感染(breakthrough infection)以及更低的中和抗體敏感度等優勢,才能在短時間內迅速取代Alpha成為主流病毒株。該研究認為,在全球接種疫苗的後時代,持續採取感染控制等措施與加強疫苗對變種病毒的免疫反應可能仍是必須的。

ما الذي يحتاج المصابون بفيروس نقص المناعة البشرية لمعرفته قبل أن أخذهم لقاحًا ضد كوفيد-19؟

يمكن للمتعايشين مع فيروس نقص المناعة البشرية أخذ لقاح ضد كوفيد-19 بشكل آمن. كجزء من عملية الترخيص التي تمر بها اللقاحات المتاحة قبل إتاحتها للتلقيح الشامل، تسمح التجارب السريرية للباحثين بإثبات سلامة اللقاح. شملت التجارب السريرية المستخدمة لاختبار سلامة لقاحات كوفيد-19 المصرح بها أشخاصًا مصابين بعدوى فيروس نقص المناعة البشرية، واعتبرت آمنة. 

Ano ang kailangang malaman ng mga taong may HIV bago sila mabakunahan laban sa COVID-19?

Maaaring ligtas na mabakunahan laban sa COVID-19 ang mga taong may HIV. Natitiyak ng mga mananaliksik ang kaligtasan ng bakuna sa pamamagitan ng mga klinikal na pagsubok, na bahagi ng proseso ng awtorisasyon kung saan sumasailalim ang mga magagamit na bakuna bago gamitin ang mga ito para sa pagbabakuna sa publiko. May mga taong may impeksyong dulot ng HIV na kasama sa mga klinikal na pagsubok na isinagawa para masubukan ang kaligtasan ng mga awtorisadong bakuna para sa COVID-19, at napagpasyahang ligtas ang mga naturang bakuna. 

एचआईवी से पीड़ित व्यक्तियों को कोविड-19 का टीका लगवाने से पहले क्या जानना चाहिए?

एचआईवी के साथ रहने वाले व्यक्तियों को सुरक्षित रूप से कोविड-19 के खिलाफ टीका लगाया जा सकता है। उपलब्ध टीके सामूहिक टीकाकरण के लिए उपलब्ध होने से पहले जिस प्राधिकरण प्रक्रिया से गुजरते हैं, उसके तहत नैदानिक ​​परीक्षण शोधकर्ताओं को एक टीके की सुरक्षा स्थापित करने की अनुमति देते हैं। अधिकृत कोविड-19 टीकों की सुरक्षा का परीक्षण करने के लिए किए जाने वाले नैदानिक ​​​​परीक्षणों में एचआईवी संक्रमण वाले लोग शामिल थे, और उन्हें सुरक्षित माना गया था। 

Rates of miscarriage in women who had and hadn’t received COVID-19 vaccines

Two papers published on Wednesday in The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and in The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) look at rates of spontaneous abortion in women who had and hadn’t received COVID-19 vaccines.


今(2021)年9月7日,國際期刊《美國醫學會期刊》網路開放版(JAMA Network Open)發表最新研究,這份關聯性研究分析以色列衛生署的資料,比較0歲至9歲兒童在兩段不同新冠變種病毒(武漢病毒與Alpha病毒)流行的期間,PCR檢測陽性率、COVID-19發生率,以及住院人數的差異。 結果發現,在Alpha變種病毒(B.1.1.7)流行期間,雖然病毒在0歲至9歲兒童中的傳播更快、更有效率,傳播病毒給其他接觸者的傳播率,是武漢GR和GH病毒流行期間的兩倍,但住院率下降。 儘管Alpha流行期間正在大量的讓成人施打疫苗,希望間接的減緩病毒傳播給兒童,但還是發現傳播率上升。研究結論提到,建議各地應該預想到兒童在學校和家中傳播病毒的狀況,並採取減緩傳播的措施。

UK's Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation recommends against vaccination of healthy 12 to 15 year olds

The UK's Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) has said the margin of benefit of vaccination is considered too small to support universal vaccination of healthy 12 to 15 year olds at this time. They say the health benefits from vaccination are marginally greater than the potential known harms in this age group.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 3 September

This week we again have separate issues on vaccine and non-vaccine papers. Continuing research on effective of vaccines against infections and hospitalisations, and waning immunity. Plus, the benefit of getting vaccinated even if previously infected, how vaccines may reduce risk of Long Covid, and ethical and scientific perspectives on booster shots.

Preprint zur Wirksamkeit des mRNA-Impfstoffs der Firma Curevac

Daten zur klinischen Wirksamkeit des mRNA-Impfstoffs CVnCoV der Tübinger Firma Curevac waren bisher allein aus Pressekonferenzen und -mitteilungen bekannt. Vergangene Woche erschien nun eine erste wissenschaftliche Preprint-Publikation (siehe Primärquelle). In der bisher nicht begutachteten Auswertung der Phase 2b/3 Studie werden Daten zur klinischen Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit von zwei Impfdosen mit je zwölf Mikrogramm CVnCoV im Abstand von vier Wochen beschrieben. Daten zur Immunogenität des Impfstoffs im Serum der Probanden sind erst für spätere Publikationen angekündigt. In Studienzentren in Europa und Lateinamerika wurden dem Preprint zufolge zwischen dem 11.12.2020 und dem 12.04.2021 insgesamt 39.680 Teilnehmer randomisiert, 19.783 erhielten CVnCoV, 19.746 ein Placebo. Die publizierten Daten basieren auf 228 dokumentierten SARS-CoV-2-Infektionen von jeglichem Schweregrad, die frühestens zwei Wochen nach Verabreichung der zweiten Dosis auftraten. Eine Besonderheit der klinischen Studie ist die sehr hohe Drop-Out-Rate der Teilnehmenden, bei den Probanden zwischen 18 und 60 Jahren wurden 32 Prozent entblindet, bei den älteren Probanden flossen 70 Prozent der zunächst Teilnehmenden nicht in die Endauswertung ein. Bei den verbliebenen Probanden ergab sich im Vergleich von Impfstoff und Placebo eine Gesamteffektivität („Vaccine Efficacy“, VE) von 48,2 Prozent. Unterteilt man die Wirksamkeit der Impfung zwischen Impfgruppe und Placebo in dem europäischen und den lateinamerikanischen Arm, dann betrugt die VE in Europa lediglich 43,7 Prozent, in Lateinamerika 49,2 Prozent. Die VE lag damit unter der von FDA und WHO als Kriterium für eine Zulassung angegebenen unteren Grenze von 50 Prozent. Allein bei Teilnehmenden im Alter von 18 bis 60 Jahren betrug die Impfeffektivität in einer Subgruppenanalyse 52,5 Prozent. Die Gesamt-VE gegen mittelschwere bis schwere COVID-19-Fälle betrug in dieser Altersgruppe 77,2 Prozent. Bei Probanden über 61 Jahren konnten aufgrund niedriger Fallzahlen statistisch keine Wirksamkeitsunterschiede belegt werden (CVnCoV: 12, Placebo: 9). Der Impfstoff befindet sich bereits seit Februar 2021 in einem sogenannten Rolling-Review-Verfahren der Europäischen Arzneimittelbehörde (EMA), die Firma Curevac hat mit der Publikation des Preprints erneut verkündet, in „engem Kontakt“ mit der EMA zu stehen und sich weiterhin um die Zulassung von CVnCoV bemühen zu wollen. Ein offizieller Zulassungsantrag liegt jedoch bisher nicht vor. Der Vertrag der EU-Kommission mit dem Hersteller verpflichtet zu einem Kauf der vorbestellten Impfdosen allein für den Fall einer europäischen Zulassung.



Preprint from the CLoCk study looking at the rates of long COVID in children

A large study of children and young people who caught SARS-CoV-2 has found that as many as one in seven (14 per cent) may still have symptoms 15 weeks later.

UK's Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) recommends third vaccine dose for severely immunosuppressed people

The Uk's JCVI has advised that a third primary dose be offered to individuals aged 12 years and over with severe immunosuppression in proximity of their first or second COVID-19 vaccine doses in the primary schedule.

Double vaccination halves risk of long COVID, study finds - data from the ZOE COVID Symptom Study app

Adults who have received a double vaccination are 49 per cent less likely to have Long COVID should they contract a COVID-19 infection, a new study finds. Researchers at King's College London analysed data from participants logging their symptoms, tests and vaccines on the UK ZOE COVID Symptom Study app between 8th December 2020 and 4 July 2021, including 1,240,009 (first dose) and 971,504 (second dose) vaccinated UK adults. The research team assessed a range of factors, including age, frailty and areas of deprivation and compared that with post-vaccination infection.


在2021年8月31日台灣時間晚上11:00,正式發表在國際期刊《美國醫學會期刊》網路開放版(JAMA Network Open)研究標題:「Prevalence of Allergic Reactions After Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccination Among Adults With High Allergy Risk」。研究調查高過敏族群在施打BNT新冠疫苗後產生的過敏或嚴重過敏狀況,希望能透過這項研究成果讓大多數的過敏患者接種後有更安全的配套觀察措施,以利擴大COVID-19的群體免疫數。

Could South Africa’s new, mutated C.1.2 variant be worse than Delta?

Scientists from South Africa have reported a new potential COVID-19 variant of interest (VOI) called C.1.2. This variant has been detected in South Africa from May 2021 onwards and has been detected in seven other countries including New Zealand. The paper, which is a preprint and is yet to be peer reviewed, suggests C.1.2 has accumulated a high number of mutations, compared to the original Wuhan virus. Many of these mutations have been identified in all four variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Delta and Gamma) but there are also additional mutations. The authors say these mutations provide sufficient cause for concern of continued transmission of this variant.

Do COVID-19 vaccines improve surfactant levels in the lungs?

Studies have shown that COVID-19 vaccines boost immunity, Prof. Abonyo explains whether they could also improve surfactant levels in the lungs:

What we know about menstrual changes after Covid vaccination 

Seven out of ten women report menstrual changes after vaccination, according to a preliminary survey of 14,000 women. Researchers in Granada will now study their menstrual health to find out if these changes are due to Covid-19 immunisation. 

Qué sabemos sobre los cambios en la menstruación tras la vacuna de la covid

Siete de cada diez mujeres dicen haber presentado cambios en la regla tras la vacunación, según una encuesta preliminar a 14.000. Ahora, investigadoras de Granada estudiarán su salud menstrual para conocer si estas alteraciones se deben a la inmunización contra la covid-19.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 27 August

This week vaccine-related papers cover effectiveness, immune responses, correlates of protection, and how reporting vaccine hesitancy influences vaccination decisions. (Due to volume, non-vaccine related papers are in a separate Coronavirus Research Tracker this week. See https://smcnz.substack.com).

Australia recommends Pfizer COVID vaccine for kids aged 12 and up

The Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) have now recommended the use of the Pfizer vaccine for kids aged 12 years and up. Below, Aussie experts chime in on the announcement. ATAGI are recommending vaccination against COVID-19 for all individuals from 12 years of age, extending the current recommendation for those aged 16 years and older. A two-dose schedule using Comirnaty (Pfizer) is recommended. This vaccine is the only vaccine currently registered for use in Australia in this age group. Recommendations on the use of Spikevax (Moderna) for adolescents will be finalised following the decision on provisional registration of Spikevax (Moderna) in this age group.

MEDIA BRIEFING ALERT: Getting your head around the vaccine data

As the Delta variant becomes dominant around the world, fully vaccinated people are becoming infected with COVID-19. These so-called 'breakthrough infections" have raised questions about the effectiveness of the vaccines. Data from some countries with high vaccination rates are also now showing more weekly cases of COVID-19 in vaccinated people than in the unvaccinated - does this mean the vaccines aren't working? Join some of the world's leading vaccine experts at this briefing from the global Science Media Centres and our partners in the COVID-19 Vaccine Media Hub. The briefing will discuss the following issues: How can we make sense of the vaccine efficacy data? Just how effective are the vaccines against the Delta variant? Do the vaccines prevent transmission? Can any countries actually reach herd immunity? Will we need booster shots in the coming months?


許多國家在近期開始針對「特定高風險族群」展開第三劑疫苗 (booster)的臨床試驗研究,顯見在利用「追加施打」以維持抗體濃度可能有研究探討的必要性。 以色列自8月1日起,針對60歲以上的高風險族群開始施打第三劑疫苗,成為全球第一個向其公民提供第三劑加強疫苗的國家。美國在8/13也授權特定的「免疫功能低下」族群可以再施打第三劑疫苗,而已完成兩劑接種的一般民眾目前則不需要再追加施打。 早前亦有研究指出,施打完整的兩劑疫苗的保護力至少可以維持6個月,但抗體效價也會隨著時間的拉長而下降;亦有回顧性研究發現,施打兩劑疫苗後過的時間越久,突破性感染的發生率可能就越高。

Preprint looking at the impact of the delta variant on vaccine effectiveness

There has been a lot of discussion and some concern around the ability of the COVID-19 vaccines to protect against the delta variant. Research conducted jointly by the University of Oxford, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and the Department for Health and Social Care (DHSC) has looked at the COVID-19 vaccines and how well they protect against infection from the delta variant, whether the timing of the dose interval plays a role, the impact of prior infection, the viral load in those who do catch the virus after being vaccinated, and how that compares with the alpha variant.

Why have daily vaccination rates been dropping in the U.S?

It is unclear how factors like vaccine hesitancy and news about vaccine side effects contributed to a decline in daily vaccination rates. We can most likely attribute the drop in number of people getting shots to a combination of things. 

لماذا تنخفض معدلات التلقيح اليومية في الولايات المتحدة؟

ليس من الواضح كيفية مساهمة عوامل مثل تردد اللقاح وأخبار عن الآثار الجانبية للقاح في انخفاض معدلات التلقيح اليومية. يمكننا على الأرجح أن نعزو الانخفاض في عدد الأشخاص الذين يحصلون على جرعات إلى مجموعة من الأمور. 

यू.एस. में दैनिक टीकाकरण दर क्यों गिर रही है?

यह स्पष्ट नहीं है कि टीके की हिचकिचाहट और टीके के दुष्प्रभावों के बारे में समाचार जैसे कारकों ने दैनिक टीकाकरण दरों में गिरावट में कैसे योगदान दिया। हम वैक्सीन प्राप्त करने वाले लोगों की संख्या में गिरावट का श्रेय संभवतः कई चीजों के संयोजन को दे सकते हैं। 

Bakit bumababa ang bilang ng mga nagpapabakuna kada araw sa US?

Hindi malinaw kung paano nakakaapekto sa pagbaba ng bilang ng mga nagpapabakuna kada araw ang mga salik na tulad ng pag-aalangan sa pagpapabakuna at mga balita tungkol sa mga side effect ng bakuna. Maiuugnay natin ang pagbaba ng bilang ng mga taong nagpapabakuna sa kombinasyon ng iba’t ibang bagay. 


今(2021)年8月17日,國際期刊《自然—通訊》(Nature Communications)發表最新研究,研究團隊分析了最近英國的幾項隊列性疫苗接種資料以及從2020年初的自然感染的患者,觀察其中的抗體與T細胞結果。研究結果顯示,與原始株(prototype isolate B)相比,針對VOC(variant of concern)類別的變種病毒,患者血清樣本中的抗體反應降低,尤其B.1.351的影響更大;並且比起施打兩劑疫苗,自然感染與施打單劑疫苗者抗體反應降低的狀況更為明顯。研究發現,在兩次疫苗接種後,會產生高強度的T細胞免疫反應,其中大部分的T細胞皆會有效針對原始株和變種病毒皆有的抗原呈現區域(epitopes)。研究認為,需要透過完整施打兩劑疫苗來產生足夠高效的免疫反應,以防止現在與未來出現的新變種病毒。

Why Spain is among the world leaders in Covid vaccination

Trust in universal public health care, solidarity, feeling at risk and a relatively low level of denialism have made Spain one of the leading powers in Covid-19 vaccination. But according to experts, politicians must close ranks around vaccination and the health system to keep up what has been achieved.

Por qué España está entre los líderes mundiales en vacunación covid

La confianza en una sanidad pública universal, la solidaridad, sentirse en riesgo y un relativo bajo eco del negacionismo han hecho de España una de las potencias en vacunación contra la covid-19. Pero según los expertos, los políticos deben cerrar filas en torno a la vacunación y el sistema sanitario para mantener lo logrado.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 20 August

This week’s papers include several studies looking at changes in vaccine effectiveness against infection and/or hospitalisation over time, or against different variants. Models indicate the risks posed by uneven global vaccination. In other research, studies of infections in children, the ongoing development of novel therapies, and why the Delta variant may be more transmissible.


2021年7月16日,網傳文章提到: 「即便是施打了兩劑號稱最優秀的輝瑞(Pfizer)疫苗,現在的Delta新變種疫情大爆發的結果實證,疫苗打了跟沒打基本上染疫率幾乎是一樣的!」 「若依照人口比例來推算,72例再感染病例佔以色列已感染人數的0.0086%,而3000例接種後感染病例佔已接種人數的0.0578%,依此計算,則接種疫苗後的感染率是重複感染率的6.72倍,也就是說,天然免疫力形成的抗體,其防禦變種病毒的強度是疫苗抗體的6.72倍,果然抗體還是 #天然的尚好!」 SMC邀請到多位專家解析文章中的幾則訊息,判斷是否有錯誤解讀或易誤導大眾。

Pregnant or breastfeeding women have similar reactions to COVID-19 jabs as everyone else

Comparing reactions to COVID-19 vaccines in 7,809 pregnant women, 6,815 lactating women, and 2,901 women who were neither pregnant nor lactating but were planning pregnancy, US scientists say reactions one day after the jabs were similar across the groups, and all the groups reported increased reactions following dose two of the mRNA vaccines (Moderna and Pfizer). Although the study was limited by covering only the first wave of vaccination, and relied on self-reporting of reactions, which can be unreliable, the results are comparable with previously reported findings among pregnant women, the researchers say.

What does the evidence say about COVID-19 booster shots for everyone? What research questions about booster shots remain unanswered?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

Toward the goal of ending the pandemic, what does the evidence show about boosting immunity for those already vaccinated versus prioritizing vaccine access worldwide?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

Should we expect regular or annual COVID-19 booster shots?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

Might COVID-19 booster shot formulations change as the SARS-CoV-2 virus evolves?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

What happens if you miss your second dose of Covaxin?

A shortage of Bharat Biotech's Covaxin in some areas has meant that some people have been unable to have their second dose within the recommended time frame.

Autorizan el primer ensayo clínico de una vacuna española contra la covid-19

La Agencia Española del Medicamento y Productos Sanitarios ha autorizado el primer ensayo clínico en personas de una vacuna española frente a la covid-19, se trata de PHH-1V de los laboratorios Hipra.

The first clinical trial of a Spanish vaccine against covid-19 has been approved

The Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices has approved the first clinical trial in humans of a Spanish vaccine against covid-19; this is PHH-1V, manufactured by Hipra Laboratories.

Tercera dosis de la vacuna: en busca de evidencias

No hay aún datos publicados que respalden la necesidad de una tercera dosis para todos. Algunos trabajos sugieren que podrían beneficiar a personas con trasplantes, aunque mucho más sólida es la evidencia de que las vacunas también protegen a esta población.

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About the Hub

The COVID-19 Vaccine Media Hub is a dedicated resource for journalists and fact checkers wanting access to evidence-based information on COVID-19 vaccines. The Hub brings together multiple sources of evidence-based information on vaccines, including explainers, expert commentary, the latest research and online press briefings, with material soon to be available in multiple languages.

If you’re a fact checker or a journalist, we’re here to help you find the information and experts you need for your story.

If you’re a member of the public and would like help finding information on COVID-19 vaccines, feel free to browse the site. You might also like to explore other evidence- based vaccine information sites such as the WHO's COVID-19 vaccine page.

This project is a global effort with contributions from Science Media Centres in Australia, the UK, Germany and New Zealand plus technology not-for-profit, Meedan. Other contributors are based in North America, Africa, Latin America and the Asia Pacific region.

The COVID-19 Vaccine Media Hub is supported by the Google News Initiative.

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Australian Science Media Centre

The Australian Science Media Centre works to enhance the media’s coverage of science, for the benefit of the public. We provide the evidence and experts when science hits the headlines.

Health Desk

Information equity is a public health issue. Health Desk provides rapid responses to health questions from fact-checkers and journalists. We host content about COVID-19 vaccine created by Science Media Centres around the world.

Science Media Center Germany

A non-profit and editorially independent institution that supports journalists in reporting on science-related topics.

UK Science Media Centre

The SMC’s mission is to improve the public understanding of science by ensuring that the news media has easy access to the very best experts and evidence when science hits the headlines.

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When science meets the headlines, the SMCNZ is there to promote accurate, evidence-based reporting on science, health and technology by helping the media work more closely with the scientific community.


SciLine is a philanthropically funded, editorially independent, free service, whose primary mission is to connect U.S. journalists to knowledgeable, articulate scientific experts and science-based resources.

Science Media Centre of Canada

The Science Media Centre of Canada is an independent non-profit that helps journalists and science writers cover science, medical and technology stories that impact the lives of Canadians.

Africa Science Media Centre

AfriSMC was established by ScienceAfrica and Partners in September 2020 in Nairobi, Kenya, to improve the credibility of media reporting of emerging scientific issues, such as the Coronavirus pandemic.

Science Media Center Taiwan

SMC Taiwan was established in 2017, as one of the international SMCs. SMC Taiwan is the only SMC in Asia connecting journalists and scientists to provide evidence-based information through the media. Please contact us if you require any assistance with reporting COVID-19. 關於疫情若需要任何進一步的專家意見,以協助民眾判讀各式科學資訊,都歡迎隨時聯繫我們。 SMC Taiwan是國際科學媒體中心的一員,唯一的亞洲科學家媒體媒合平台,會持續提供專家意見與相關研究討論,給各位媒體朋友們參考。


Science makes the news. SINC is the public news agency specializing in science in Spain, depending on the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology. SINC offers its service to journalists and citizens: information, context and analysis from expert sources to shed light on the latest scientific news, with accuracy, veracity, and independence.