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Coronavirus Research Tracking - 24 September

This week Pfizer’s data on vaccinating 5 to 11 year olds, papers on the effectiveness of the Moderna vaccine, the effectiveness of several vaccines against different variants, the immunity boost from natural infection, and the need for more research on whether vaccination affects menstruation. Non-vaccine research includes years of life lost due to Covid, mixed results for Remdesivir, infectiousness of the Delta variant, an artificial intelligence success, paranoia and its influences, and underestimating infections from bats.

Pfizer and BioNTech announce phase 2/3 trial results in of COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 5 to 11

Pfizer and BioNTech have announced in a press release the results from a Phase 2/3 trial looking at the safety profile and antibody responses to the COVID-19 vaccine in children 5 to 11 years of age. The trial used a two-dose regimen of 10 µg administered 21 days apart, a smaller dose than the 30 µg dose used for people 12 and older.

What do we know about vaccine distribution for children?

COVID-19 vaccines should be prioritized for older and medically vulnerable populations. In countries where vaccines are available and approved for children 12 and older, kids should be vaccinated if possible. More research is needed on vaccinating children under 12 but early research showing their safety and strengthening of immune system responses is promising.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 17 September - vaccine edition

This week there are lots of vaccine-related studies. Emerging evidence on the effectiveness of a booster dose for the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, and effectiveness of several vaccines in general, as well as against the Delta variant. Plus, comparing immune responses to different vaccines, evidence for vaccines reducing transmissibility, and vaccine-related myocarditis risks for boys. Non-vaccine-related papers are in a separate Tracker again today.

Neue Indikatoren der COVID-19-Strategie für Herbst/Winter – Rapid Reaction

Das Robert Koch-Institut hat diese Woche seine Strategie zum Umgang mit der COVID-19-Pandemie für den kommenden Herbst und Winter aktualisiert. Darin führt es auch ein neues Paket an Indikatoren ein, anhand derer die aktuelle Lage in drei Stufen – Basisstufe, Stufe 1 und Stufe 2 – eingeteilt, bewertet und in der Folge Maßnahmen angepasst werden sollen. Vor allem diese Indikatoren sind Gegenstand näherer Betrachtung in diesem SMC-Angebot und werden durch Fachleute bewertet; auch eine kurze Einschätzung der Lage findet Platz. Das Robert Koch-Institut setzt in seiner Strategie weiter auf die Einhaltung von klassischen individuellen Maßnahmen zur Eindämmung: Alle Menschen – also auch Geimpfte und Genesene – sollen sich in allen Lebensbereichen auch in der Basisstufe der Strategie weiter an Regeln wie Abstand halten, Masken tragen und Lüften halten. Ungeimpfte sollen sich in allen Settings schon auf dieser Stufe testen lassen. Mit höheren Stufen kommen vor allem in Bereichen mit Personen mit hohem Risiko weitere verschärfende Maßnahmen hinzu. In der höchsten Stufe 2 findet dann die 2G-Regel mehr Anwendung, also Zugang nur für Geimpfte oder Genesene. Das Strategiepapier ist ein Vorschlag des RKI, wie die einzelnen Bundesländer die Coronaschutzverordnungen ausgestalten können. Die Pandemie soll in Deutschland dem Plan zufolge also weiterhin durch Maßnahmen unter Kontrolle gehalten werden, allerdings eher mit individuellen Maßnahmen als mit Schließungen von Einrichtungen oder Einschränkungen ganzer Gesellschaftsbereiche. Andere Länder heben bereits alle Restriktionen auf, wie beispielsweise Dänemark, das Vereinigte Königreich und die Niederlande. Die Indikatoren: Zur Beurteilung der Pandemielage auf Bundesländerebene sollen zukünftig drei Indikatoren herangezogen werden: die Inzidenz, die Hospitalisierungsinzidenz und die durch COVID-19 gebundene Kapazität der Intensivstationen in Prozent. Für einen Wechsel in eine höhere Gefährdungs- und damit Maßnahmenstufe müssen bei zwei der drei tagesaktuellen Indikatoren die jeweiligen Grenzwerte an drei aufeinanderfolgenden Tagen überschritten werden. Das SMC hat die aktuelle Lage in den einzelnen Bundesländern anhand der Indikatorik des RKI folgend aufgeschlüsselt (siehe Tabelle im Corona Report vom 15.09.2021). Die Werte gibt das RKI mittlerweile von Montag bis Freitag aktualisiert in einem eigenen Dashboard tagesaktuell an. Bei ihrer Betrachtung sind gewisse Muster zu beobachten: Bei der aktuellen Teststrategie sollte immer zuerst die Inzidenz den Grenzwert zur nächsten Stufe übersteigen. Erst eine deutlich höhere Dunkelziffer oder ein geändertes Verhältnis zwischen Inzidenz und Hospitalisierung würde dazu führen, dass zuerst einer der anderen beiden Parameter den Grenzwert zur nächsten Stufe erreicht. In den meisten Fällen überschreitet nach der Inzidenz wahrscheinlich die Auslastung der Intensivstationen den Grenzwert, sodass die nächste Maßnahmenstufe ausgelöst würde. Die vom RKI vorgeschlagene tagesaktuelle Betrachtung der Werte verursacht allerdings große Probleme durch den Meldeverzug bei der Inzidenz, vor allem bei der Hospitalisierungsinzidenz. Letzterer Wert ist an das Meldedatum geknüpft – die Hospitalisierungsinzidenz liegt somit tagesaktuell viel niedriger als in der Realität. Das RKI scheint die Grenzwerte im Strategiepapier also auf der Basis der Werte ohne Nachmeldungen und damit eher niedrig gewählt zu haben, damit der Indikator die Situation adäquat anzeigen kann. Sollte es in den Bundesländern unterschiedlich starken Meldeverzug geben, müssen die Grenzwerte für das jeweilige Bundesland entsprechend angepasst werden. Einige Bundesländer nutzen für ihre Regeln Daten aus anderen Quellen, um die tagesaktuelle Situation genauer zu schätzen. Beim Vergleich der Grenzwerte in den verschiedenen Ländern muss darauf geachtet werden, dass die Grenzwerte je nach Datenquelle unterschiedlich hoch ausfallen und trotzdem qualitativ das gleiche Geschehen beschreiben können: Werden Krankenhauseinweisungen beispielsweise schnell erfasst und regional tagesaktuell abgebildet, spiegelt ein relativ zum RKI-Wert höherer Grenzwert eventuell die gleiche Grenze wider. Wie sinnvoll die vom RKI gewählten Indikatoren und die Höhe der Grenzwerte auch mit Blick auf die aktuelle COVID-19-Lage in Deutschland sind und was in den Meldewegen und ihrer Darstellung noch verbessert werden müsste, schätzen Fachleute nachfolgend ein.

6 tips for covering COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy

In 2019, the World Health Organization listed vaccine hesitancy as one of the top 10 threats to global health, so it’s important for journalists to shed light on the issue and educate the public about it. Here are some tips on how to cover it, from The Journalist's Resource

What do we know about the Novavax vaccine?

The Novavax vaccine is the remaining Covid-19 jab among the New Zealand Government’s pre-purchase agreements that’s under review by Medsafe, with doses expected to arrive early next year. Medicines regulator Medsafe approved the three other vaccines in the Government’s Covid-19 vaccine portfolio this year, with only the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine currently being used in New Zealand’s vaccination campaign.

「澳洲施打疫苗對Delta病毒的直接保護力和群體保護力」專家意見

今(2021)年9月6日《澳大利亞醫學雜誌》(Medical Journal of Australia)公開研究論文,使用數學模型探討澳洲2019年疫苗種類、接種年齡、覆蓋率等,對疫情直接和間接的影響。結果發現先讓較脆弱的族群施打疫苗,對於覆蓋率較低的國家而言,是較合適的策略。但在Rt值(平均每個病人可傳染人數的估計值)較低且覆蓋率較高的區域,為高傳播風險的族群接種疫苗會變得更加重要。如果是Rt值為5的情況,可能需要為包括兒童在內、超過 85% 的人口接種疫苗,才能達到群體免疫。即使沒有群體免疫,疫苗也能有效減少死亡。

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 10 September

This week, vaccines and infectiousness, differing results for Delta hospitalisation risks, effectiveness of a third dose, vaccine safety studies, and what influences vaccine hesitancy. In non-vaccine studies, rapid antigen tests, children’s strong innate immunity, the low risk from public toilets, and episodic mutation rates.

What do individuals with HIV need to know before they get vaccinated against COVID-19?

Individuals living with HIV can safely be vaccinated against COVID-19. As part of the authorization process that the available vaccines go through before being available for mass vaccination, clinical trials allow researchers to establish the safety of a vaccine. The clinical trials used to test the safety of the authorized Covid-19 vaccines included people with HIV infection, and were deemed safe.

「Delta免疫逃逸與突破性感染研究」專家意見

在2021年9月6日台灣時間晚上11:00,正式發表在國際期刊《自然》(Nature)研究標題:「SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 Delta variant replication and immune evasion」,由英國劍橋大學臨床微生物學教授古普塔(Ravindra Gupta)帶領研究團隊,從病毒學角度發現,相對於先前的變種病毒(Alpha、Kappa),最近在全球迅速傳播的Delta變種病毒(B.1.617.2),具有一些結構上的優勢特徵,包括:更快速的複製能力(replication)、更好的細胞融合&入侵能力(spike mediated cell fusion and entry)、較高的突破性感染(breakthrough infection)以及更低的中和抗體敏感度等優勢,才能在短時間內迅速取代Alpha成為主流病毒株。該研究認為,在全球接種疫苗的後時代,持續採取感染控制等措施與加強疫苗對變種病毒的免疫反應可能仍是必須的。

「以色列兒童感染不同新冠變種病毒的傳播狀況」專家意見

今(2021)年9月7日,國際期刊《美國醫學會期刊》網路開放版(JAMA Network Open)發表最新研究,這份關聯性研究分析以色列衛生署的資料,比較0歲至9歲兒童在兩段不同新冠變種病毒(武漢病毒與Alpha病毒)流行的期間,PCR檢測陽性率、COVID-19發生率,以及住院人數的差異。 結果發現,在Alpha變種病毒(B.1.1.7)流行期間,雖然病毒在0歲至9歲兒童中的傳播更快、更有效率,傳播病毒給其他接觸者的傳播率,是武漢GR和GH病毒流行期間的兩倍,但住院率下降。 儘管Alpha流行期間正在大量的讓成人施打疫苗,希望間接的減緩病毒傳播給兒童,但還是發現傳播率上升。研究結論提到,建議各地應該預想到兒童在學校和家中傳播病毒的狀況,並採取減緩傳播的措施。

UK's Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation recommends against vaccination of healthy 12 to 15 year olds

The UK's Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) has said the margin of benefit of vaccination is considered too small to support universal vaccination of healthy 12 to 15 year olds at this time. They say the health benefits from vaccination are marginally greater than the potential known harms in this age group.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 3 September

This week we again have separate issues on vaccine and non-vaccine papers. Continuing research on effective of vaccines against infections and hospitalisations, and waning immunity. Plus, the benefit of getting vaccinated even if previously infected, how vaccines may reduce risk of Long Covid, and ethical and scientific perspectives on booster shots.

Preprint zur Wirksamkeit des mRNA-Impfstoffs der Firma Curevac

Daten zur klinischen Wirksamkeit des mRNA-Impfstoffs CVnCoV der Tübinger Firma Curevac waren bisher allein aus Pressekonferenzen und -mitteilungen bekannt. Vergangene Woche erschien nun eine erste wissenschaftliche Preprint-Publikation (siehe Primärquelle). In der bisher nicht begutachteten Auswertung der Phase 2b/3 Studie werden Daten zur klinischen Wirksamkeit und Sicherheit von zwei Impfdosen mit je zwölf Mikrogramm CVnCoV im Abstand von vier Wochen beschrieben. Daten zur Immunogenität des Impfstoffs im Serum der Probanden sind erst für spätere Publikationen angekündigt. In Studienzentren in Europa und Lateinamerika wurden dem Preprint zufolge zwischen dem 11.12.2020 und dem 12.04.2021 insgesamt 39.680 Teilnehmer randomisiert, 19.783 erhielten CVnCoV, 19.746 ein Placebo. Die publizierten Daten basieren auf 228 dokumentierten SARS-CoV-2-Infektionen von jeglichem Schweregrad, die frühestens zwei Wochen nach Verabreichung der zweiten Dosis auftraten. Eine Besonderheit der klinischen Studie ist die sehr hohe Drop-Out-Rate der Teilnehmenden, bei den Probanden zwischen 18 und 60 Jahren wurden 32 Prozent entblindet, bei den älteren Probanden flossen 70 Prozent der zunächst Teilnehmenden nicht in die Endauswertung ein. Bei den verbliebenen Probanden ergab sich im Vergleich von Impfstoff und Placebo eine Gesamteffektivität („Vaccine Efficacy“, VE) von 48,2 Prozent. Unterteilt man die Wirksamkeit der Impfung zwischen Impfgruppe und Placebo in dem europäischen und den lateinamerikanischen Arm, dann betrugt die VE in Europa lediglich 43,7 Prozent, in Lateinamerika 49,2 Prozent. Die VE lag damit unter der von FDA und WHO als Kriterium für eine Zulassung angegebenen unteren Grenze von 50 Prozent. Allein bei Teilnehmenden im Alter von 18 bis 60 Jahren betrug die Impfeffektivität in einer Subgruppenanalyse 52,5 Prozent. Die Gesamt-VE gegen mittelschwere bis schwere COVID-19-Fälle betrug in dieser Altersgruppe 77,2 Prozent. Bei Probanden über 61 Jahren konnten aufgrund niedriger Fallzahlen statistisch keine Wirksamkeitsunterschiede belegt werden (CVnCoV: 12, Placebo: 9). Der Impfstoff befindet sich bereits seit Februar 2021 in einem sogenannten Rolling-Review-Verfahren der Europäischen Arzneimittelbehörde (EMA), die Firma Curevac hat mit der Publikation des Preprints erneut verkündet, in „engem Kontakt“ mit der EMA zu stehen und sich weiterhin um die Zulassung von CVnCoV bemühen zu wollen. Ein offizieller Zulassungsantrag liegt jedoch bisher nicht vor. Der Vertrag der EU-Kommission mit dem Hersteller verpflichtet zu einem Kauf der vorbestellten Impfdosen allein für den Fall einer europäischen Zulassung.

「Delta變種病毒與疫苗有效性」《自然》(Nature)期刊文章整理與摘譯

Delta變種病毒已經快速地成為全球許多國家最主要傳播的COVID-19病毒株,過去幾周,許多研究已經能更清楚解釋Delta變種病毒,究竟和它的類似病毒有哪些不同,以及它廣泛傳播的機制。台灣科技媒體中心整理並摘譯五篇《自然》(Nature)期刊探討Delta變種病毒與疫苗效力的文章,供大家參考。

Preprint from the CLoCk study looking at the rates of long COVID in children

A large study of children and young people who caught SARS-CoV-2 has found that as many as one in seven (14 per cent) may still have symptoms 15 weeks later.

UK's Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) recommends third vaccine dose for severely immunosuppressed people

The Uk's JCVI has advised that a third primary dose be offered to individuals aged 12 years and over with severe immunosuppression in proximity of their first or second COVID-19 vaccine doses in the primary schedule.

Double vaccination halves risk of long COVID, study finds - data from the ZOE COVID Symptom Study app

Adults who have received a double vaccination are 49 per cent less likely to have Long COVID should they contract a COVID-19 infection, a new study finds. Researchers at King's College London analysed data from participants logging their symptoms, tests and vaccines on the UK ZOE COVID Symptom Study app between 8th December 2020 and 4 July 2021, including 1,240,009 (first dose) and 971,504 (second dose) vaccinated UK adults. The research team assessed a range of factors, including age, frailty and areas of deprivation and compared that with post-vaccination infection.

「高風險過敏族群在施打BNT疫苗的過敏研究」專家意見

在2021年8月31日台灣時間晚上11:00,正式發表在國際期刊《美國醫學會期刊》網路開放版(JAMA Network Open)研究標題:「Prevalence of Allergic Reactions After Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccination Among Adults With High Allergy Risk」。研究調查高過敏族群在施打BNT新冠疫苗後產生的過敏或嚴重過敏狀況,希望能透過這項研究成果讓大多數的過敏患者接種後有更安全的配套觀察措施,以利擴大COVID-19的群體免疫數。

Could South Africa’s new, mutated C.1.2 variant be worse than Delta?

Scientists from South Africa have reported a new potential COVID-19 variant of interest (VOI) called C.1.2. This variant has been detected in South Africa from May 2021 onwards and has been detected in seven other countries including New Zealand. The paper, which is a preprint and is yet to be peer reviewed, suggests C.1.2 has accumulated a high number of mutations, compared to the original Wuhan virus. Many of these mutations have been identified in all four variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Delta and Gamma) but there are also additional mutations. The authors say these mutations provide sufficient cause for concern of continued transmission of this variant.

Do COVID-19 vaccines improve surfactant levels in the lungs?

Studies have shown that COVID-19 vaccines boost immunity, Prof. Abonyo explains whether they could also improve surfactant levels in the lungs:

What we know about menstrual changes after Covid vaccination 

Seven out of ten women report menstrual changes after vaccination, according to a preliminary survey of 14,000 women. Researchers in Granada will now study their menstrual health to find out if these changes are due to Covid-19 immunisation. 

Qué sabemos sobre los cambios en la menstruación tras la vacuna de la covid

Siete de cada diez mujeres dicen haber presentado cambios en la regla tras la vacunación, según una encuesta preliminar a 14.000. Ahora, investigadoras de Granada estudiarán su salud menstrual para conocer si estas alteraciones se deben a la inmunización contra la covid-19.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 27 August

This week vaccine-related papers cover effectiveness, immune responses, correlates of protection, and how reporting vaccine hesitancy influences vaccination decisions. (Due to volume, non-vaccine related papers are in a separate Coronavirus Research Tracker this week. See https://smcnz.substack.com).

Australia recommends Pfizer COVID vaccine for kids aged 12 and up

The Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI) have now recommended the use of the Pfizer vaccine for kids aged 12 years and up. Below, Aussie experts chime in on the announcement. ATAGI are recommending vaccination against COVID-19 for all individuals from 12 years of age, extending the current recommendation for those aged 16 years and older. A two-dose schedule using Comirnaty (Pfizer) is recommended. This vaccine is the only vaccine currently registered for use in Australia in this age group. Recommendations on the use of Spikevax (Moderna) for adolescents will be finalised following the decision on provisional registration of Spikevax (Moderna) in this age group.

MEDIA BRIEFING ALERT: Getting your head around the vaccine data

As the Delta variant becomes dominant around the world, fully vaccinated people are becoming infected with COVID-19. These so-called 'breakthrough infections" have raised questions about the effectiveness of the vaccines. Data from some countries with high vaccination rates are also now showing more weekly cases of COVID-19 in vaccinated people than in the unvaccinated - does this mean the vaccines aren't working? Join some of the world's leading vaccine experts at this briefing from the global Science Media Centres and our partners in the COVID-19 Vaccine Media Hub. The briefing will discuss the following issues: How can we make sense of the vaccine efficacy data? Just how effective are the vaccines against the Delta variant? Do the vaccines prevent transmission? Can any countries actually reach herd immunity? Will we need booster shots in the coming months?

「COVID-19疫苗追加第三劑」專家意見

許多國家在近期開始針對「特定高風險族群」展開第三劑疫苗 (booster)的臨床試驗研究,顯見在利用「追加施打」以維持抗體濃度可能有研究探討的必要性。 以色列自8月1日起,針對60歲以上的高風險族群開始施打第三劑疫苗,成為全球第一個向其公民提供第三劑加強疫苗的國家。美國在8/13也授權特定的「免疫功能低下」族群可以再施打第三劑疫苗,而已完成兩劑接種的一般民眾目前則不需要再追加施打。 早前亦有研究指出,施打完整的兩劑疫苗的保護力至少可以維持6個月,但抗體效價也會隨著時間的拉長而下降;亦有回顧性研究發現,施打兩劑疫苗後過的時間越久,突破性感染的發生率可能就越高。

Preprint looking at the impact of the delta variant on vaccine effectiveness

There has been a lot of discussion and some concern around the ability of the COVID-19 vaccines to protect against the delta variant. Research conducted jointly by the University of Oxford, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) and the Department for Health and Social Care (DHSC) has looked at the COVID-19 vaccines and how well they protect against infection from the delta variant, whether the timing of the dose interval plays a role, the impact of prior infection, the viral load in those who do catch the virus after being vaccinated, and how that compares with the alpha variant.

Why have daily vaccination rates been dropping in the U.S?

It is unclear how factors like vaccine hesitancy and news about vaccine side effects contributed to a decline in daily vaccination rates. We can most likely attribute the drop in number of people getting shots to a combination of things. 

「施打兩劑疫苗可針對COVID-19變種病毒引起高效免疫反應」專家意見

今(2021)年8月17日,國際期刊《自然—通訊》(Nature Communications)發表最新研究,研究團隊分析了最近英國的幾項隊列性疫苗接種資料以及從2020年初的自然感染的患者,觀察其中的抗體與T細胞結果。研究結果顯示,與原始株(prototype isolate B)相比,針對VOC(variant of concern)類別的變種病毒,患者血清樣本中的抗體反應降低,尤其B.1.351的影響更大;並且比起施打兩劑疫苗,自然感染與施打單劑疫苗者抗體反應降低的狀況更為明顯。研究發現,在兩次疫苗接種後,會產生高強度的T細胞免疫反應,其中大部分的T細胞皆會有效針對原始株和變種病毒皆有的抗原呈現區域(epitopes)。研究認為,需要透過完整施打兩劑疫苗來產生足夠高效的免疫反應,以防止現在與未來出現的新變種病毒。

Why Spain is among the world leaders in Covid vaccination

Trust in universal public health care, solidarity, feeling at risk and a relatively low level of denialism have made Spain one of the leading powers in Covid-19 vaccination. But according to experts, politicians must close ranks around vaccination and the health system to keep up what has been achieved.

Por qué España está entre los líderes mundiales en vacunación covid

La confianza en una sanidad pública universal, la solidaridad, sentirse en riesgo y un relativo bajo eco del negacionismo han hecho de España una de las potencias en vacunación contra la covid-19. Pero según los expertos, los políticos deben cerrar filas en torno a la vacunación y el sistema sanitario para mantener lo logrado.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 20 August

This week’s papers include several studies looking at changes in vaccine effectiveness against infection and/or hospitalisation over time, or against different variants. Models indicate the risks posed by uneven global vaccination. In other research, studies of infections in children, the ongoing development of novel therapies, and why the Delta variant may be more transmissible.

「疫苗打了跟沒打基本上染疫率幾乎一樣?」專家意見

2021年7月16日,網傳文章提到: 「即便是施打了兩劑號稱最優秀的輝瑞(Pfizer)疫苗,現在的Delta新變種疫情大爆發的結果實證,疫苗打了跟沒打基本上染疫率幾乎是一樣的!」 「若依照人口比例來推算,72例再感染病例佔以色列已感染人數的0.0086%,而3000例接種後感染病例佔已接種人數的0.0578%,依此計算,則接種疫苗後的感染率是重複感染率的6.72倍,也就是說,天然免疫力形成的抗體,其防禦變種病毒的強度是疫苗抗體的6.72倍,果然抗體還是 #天然的尚好!」 SMC邀請到多位專家解析文章中的幾則訊息,判斷是否有錯誤解讀或易誤導大眾。

Pregnant or breastfeeding women have similar reactions to COVID-19 jabs as everyone else

Comparing reactions to COVID-19 vaccines in 7,809 pregnant women, 6,815 lactating women, and 2,901 women who were neither pregnant nor lactating but were planning pregnancy, US scientists say reactions one day after the jabs were similar across the groups, and all the groups reported increased reactions following dose two of the mRNA vaccines (Moderna and Pfizer). Although the study was limited by covering only the first wave of vaccination, and relied on self-reporting of reactions, which can be unreliable, the results are comparable with previously reported findings among pregnant women, the researchers say.

What does the evidence say about COVID-19 booster shots for everyone? What research questions about booster shots remain unanswered?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

Toward the goal of ending the pandemic, what does the evidence show about boosting immunity for those already vaccinated versus prioritizing vaccine access worldwide?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

Should we expect regular or annual COVID-19 booster shots?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

Might COVID-19 booster shot formulations change as the SARS-CoV-2 virus evolves?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

What happens if you miss your second dose of Covaxin?

A shortage of Bharat Biotech's Covaxin in some areas has meant that some people have been unable to have their second dose within the recommended time frame.

Autorizan el primer ensayo clínico de una vacuna española contra la covid-19

La Agencia Española del Medicamento y Productos Sanitarios ha autorizado el primer ensayo clínico en personas de una vacuna española frente a la covid-19, se trata de PHH-1V de los laboratorios Hipra.

The first clinical trial of a Spanish vaccine against covid-19 has been approved

The Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices has approved the first clinical trial in humans of a Spanish vaccine against covid-19; this is PHH-1V, manufactured by Hipra Laboratories.

Tercera dosis de la vacuna: en busca de evidencias

No hay aún datos publicados que respalden la necesidad de una tercera dosis para todos. Algunos trabajos sugieren que podrían beneficiar a personas con trasplantes, aunque mucho más sólida es la evidencia de que las vacunas también protegen a esta población.

Third dose of vaccine: searching for evidence

So far, there are no published data to support the need for a third dose for everyone. Some studies suggest that it could benefit people with transplants, although there is much stronger evidence that vaccines also protect this population.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 14 August

This week’s papers include comparing different vaccines’ effectiveness against Delta, Moderna’s safety for teenagers, and T cell responses to vaccines. Non-vaccine papers include a possible cause for some cases of Long Covid, estimating asymptomatic frequency, and the importance of large scale therapeutic trials. It is easy to get swamped by all the research on coronavirus. New Zealand’s Science Media Centre is keeping track of much of it so you don’t have to. The Research Tracker is prepared by Dr Robert Hickson for the Science Media Centre New Zealand.

What does the research show about the benefits of a COVID-19 vaccine booster for different groups of people?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

How do policymakers decide who is eligible to receive a COVID-19 booster shot?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

How do doctors decide which patients need a COVID-19 booster shot?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

Moderna COVID-19 vaccine and antibody response to variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Epsilon, Iota and Delta)

New data has been released on the ability of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine to generate neutralising antibodies against variants of concern. The paper, published in Science found that most people vaccinated with the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine maintained both binding and functional antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants for six months after the second dose.

What COVID-19 vaccines are available in the Philippines, and how are they each different?

In the Philippines, available COVID-19 vaccines are from Sinovac Biotech, AstraZeneca, Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson, and Sputnik V.

Virus frente a vacunas, una batalla evolutiva que debe ganar la ciencia

Con la población humana como campo de batalla, el SARS-CoV-2 y las vacunas llevan meses enzarzados en una escalada evolutiva. Recientemente se ha hecho público que PHH-1V de la compañía Hipra será la primera vacuna contra la covid desarrollada íntegramente en España que se probará en humanos. Otro equipo español quiere lograr una vacuna nasal, capaz incluso de impedir la infección y expone aquí las estrategias de que dispone la ciencia.

Viruses versus vaccines, an evolutionary battle for science to win

With the human population as the battleground, SARS-CoV-2 and vaccines have been locked in an evolutionary escalation for months. It has been announced that the Hipra Laboratories’ PHH-1V would be the first vaccine against Covid developed entirely in Spain to be tested in humans. Another Spanish team wants to achieve a nasal vaccine, capable even of preventing infection, and here they present the strategies available to science.

疫苗護照科學資訊

認識什麼是疫苗護照。

Clinical features of rare clotting events after COVID-19 vaccines, ‘Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis’ (VITT)

A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) looks at the clinical features of Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis (VITT).

There's no evidence that mRNA vaccines are linked to blood clots.

Current research has not shown a link between the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines and blood clots. Health leaders around the world continue to encourage everyone to get a COVID-19 vaccine when it is available to them.

What do we know about the Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine and animal testing?

The Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine underwent pre-clinical testing in rhesus macaques and Syrian golden hamsters before human trials.

Why is the AstraZeneca vaccine less expensive than others?

Compared to many of its counterparts, the AstraZeneca vaccine is easier and less expensive to manufacture, store, and transport. It’s been featured prominently in the vaccination strategies of many developing and developed countries for these reasons. 

There’s no evidence that vaccines can affect fertility. What do we know so far?

To-date, there is no data that the COVID-19 vaccines affect fertility. Research is ongoing to continue studying the relationship between COVID-19 vaccines and fertility long-term, and to make sure there are no risks. Many experts say that COVID-19 is more harmful for pregnant individuals and potentially for those who are hoping to become pregnant than the vaccines that protect against it. 

US case series study in children study looking at association of myocarditis with the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine

A study published in JAMA Cardiology looks at the association of myocarditis with Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in a case series of children in the US.

Antibody responses to variants after two vaccine doses in individuals with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection

A study published in Science Translational Medicine looks at antibody response to variants following two doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in individuals with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Por qué no es necesario hacerse un test después de vacunarse para confirmar la inmunidad

La vacunación protege contra los síntomas más graves de la covid-19 y no es necesario hacerse un test de anticuerpos para confirmarlo.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 6 August

This week, several papers look at effectiveness of vaccines against Delta variant infections. Other studies test how to nudge behaviours, and there is a review of factors that helped the rapid development and deployment (in richer countries) of vaccines. Non-vaccine research papers include further promising results for the REGEN-COV antibody therapy, T cell effectiveness against variants, increasing neutralisation potency over time, and finding new variants in wastewater. 

How well can we model the path out of lockdowns?

The road toward a life without major lockdowns in Australia looks a little clearer, with the federal government announcing COVID-19 vaccination targets of 70 per cent and 80 per cent amongst the eligible population as triggers for reduced restrictions.

How do drugs like diclofenac interact with COVID-19 vaccines?

There is no scientific evidence demonstrating that taking medically-advised diclofenac after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine can cause complications. According to [CDC guidelines](https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/clinical-considerations/covid-19-vaccines-us.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fvaccines%2Fcovid-19%2Finfo-by-product%2Fclinical-considerations.html) “for all currently authorized COVID-19 vaccines, NSAIDs can be taken for the treatment of post-vaccination symptoms.” This includes the use of diclofenac, and as long as recommended amounts are not exceeded and are in line with medical advises. 

Why you don't need a test after vaccination to confirm immunity

Vaccination protects against the most severe symptoms of covid-19 and does not require a test to confirm this.

What do we know about Israel giving out booster shots to its population?

There have been no large-scale studies to date that have examined the potential side-effects of a third dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, but it is likely that there may be more acute episodes of the common side effects that tend to happen after a second dose (e.g. headaches, tiredness, muscle pain, fevers, swelling). There is no evidence to show that a third dose would cause increased rates of cancers, heart attacks, or death among those vaccinated. 

How is genomic medicine different from COVID-19 mRNA vaccine technology?

Since mRNA is very delicate, delivery into cells can be a challenge. Scientists used a delivery method using tiny balls of fat called liquid nanoparticles. These can help transport mRNA into the body safely, without degrading the mRNA. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines use liquid nanoparticles to deliver the vaccine formulas to the targeted cells. It is likely that any potential future “superhero” vaccines produced using genomic medicine may also use the delivery method of encasing mRNA in a envelope of fats. For now, this is a theoretical idea.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 30 July

It is easy to get swamped by all the research on coronavirus. New Zealand’s Science Media Centre is keeping track of much of it so you don’t have to. The Research Tracker is prepared by Dr Robert Hickson for the Science Media Centre New Zealand. This week emerging but mixed results on waning effectiveness of the Pfizer vaccine, frequency of breakthrough infections, adverse reactions to vaccines, and vaccine safety for adolescents. Non-vaccine papers include Covid-19-associated neurological damage, recalculating deaths in India, and recent changes in selection pressure on the virus.

Scientists believe the pandemic will be over even if the new coronavirus continues to exist

Vaccination protects us from getting sick from SARS-CoV-2, a virus that humanity will eventually live with, as we already do with colds and seasonal flu. And the sooner we are all vaccinated, the sooner it will cease to be a serious problem.

Los científicos creen que la pandemia se acabará aunque el nuevo coronavirus siga existiendo

La vacunación nos protege de enfermar por el SARS-CoV-2, un virus con el que la humanidad acabará conviviendo, como ya lo hacemos con los resfriados o la gripe estacional. Y cuanto antes estemos todos vacunados, antes dejará de ser un problema grave.

Qué esperar mientras se espera la segunda dosis

Las vacunas de la covid-19 son seguras. Sin embargo, algunas personas desarrollan efectos secundarios, generalmente leves, como dolores musculares y articulares, fiebre y cansancio, que solo duran unos pocos días. En caso de contagio entre dosis, si la persona es menor de 65 años deberá esperar seis meses para recibir el segundo pinchazo. Si es mayor, completará la pauta de vacunación una vez recuperado de la enfermedad.

What to expect while waiting for the second dose

Covid-19 vaccines are safe. However, some people develop usually mild side effects, such as muscle and joint pain, fever and tiredness, which only last a few days. In case of infection between doses, if the person is under 65 years of age, in Spain they will have to wait for six months before the second injection. If they are older, they will complete the vaccination schedule once they have recovered from the disease.

Farmacovigilancia: así se investiga si un medicamento ya en uso produce un efecto inesperado

“Los reguladores deben hallar un equilibrio entre poner nuevos fármacos a disposición de los pacientes lo antes posible y recabar información suficiente sobre su calidad, seguridad y eficacia”, explica la Agencia Europea del Medicamento (EMA). Un sistema cuidadosamente diseñado detecta cuanto antes eventos no esperados de las vacunas de la covid-19 que los ensayos clínicos no podían advertir.

Pharmacovigilance: how to investigate if a medicine already in use has an unexpected effect

“Regulators must strike a balance between making new medicines available to patients as soon as possible and gathering sufficient information on their quality, safety and efficacy,” explains the European Medicines Agency (EMA). A carefully designed system detects unexpected events in covid-19 vaccines that clinical trials could not detect as early as possible.

Las vacunas, un cortafuegos para la covid-19

Si algo bueno se puede decir de esta pandemia es que permite admirar el avance del conocimiento en tiempo real. Cuando la vacunación empezó solo se sabía que las vacunas previenen la enfermedad grave; varios meses —y numerosos estudios— después, se puede afirmar que también reducen significativamente la infección y la transmisión.

Vaccines, a firewall against covid-19

If there is one good thing to be said about this pandemic, it is that it allows us to admire the advance of knowledge in real time. When vaccination began, it was only known that vaccines prevent severe disease; several months - and numerous studies - later, it can be said that they also significantly reduce infection and transmission.

How are N95 masks made?

N95 masks that have been approved by national health agencies and international organizations do not pose a substantial threat to human health and are effective in preventing the spread of disease. However, counterfeit masks made with non-polypropylene material may have questionable contents.

Cuántos días deben pasar entre la primera y la segunda dosis de la vacuna

Los datos disponibles de las vacunas covid-19 establecen un período mínimo de tiempo entre dosis. No obstante, algunos países han decidido retrasar algunos días el segundo pinchazo para disponer de más dosis y proteger a más población.

How many days should elapse between the first and second dose of the vaccine

The available data for covid-19 vaccines establish a minimum period of time between doses. However, some countries have decided to delay the second jab by a few days to make more doses available and protect more of the population.

Modelling study looking at SARS-CoV-2 transmission during COVID-19 vaccination campaigns and likelihood of emergence of vaccine-resistant variants

A modelling study published in Scientific Reports looks at how rates of SARS‑CoV‑2 transmission and vaccination might impact the fate of vaccine‑resistant strains.

增加對「疫苗」訊息的免疫力

增加對「疫苗」訊息的免疫力,不輕易受騙。

What do we know about how vaccines interact with our lungs and blood?

Most COVID-19 vaccines are administered by injection into our upper arm, away from any major blood vessels. Once injected, the muscle cells around the injection site express the spike protein, thereby eliciting an immune response from the body. A large proportion of the remaining dose in the arm drains through our lymphatic system, into the liver and then is destroyed by enzymes there. A very small proportion may ultimately end up in other tissues or the bloodstream. 

AstraZeneca vaccine provisionally approved for NZ – Expert Reaction

New Zealand’s medicines regulator Medsafe has given the provisional green light to the AstraZeneca vaccine, making it the third Covid-19 vaccine approved for use among NZ’s adult population. The viral vector vaccine is one of four purchase agreements the government has made with pharmaceutical companies. Associate Health Minister Dr Ayesha Verrall said the country’s immunisation plan remains focused on rolling out the Pfizer mRNA vaccine.

Thromboembolic events and thrombosis with thrombocytopenia after COVID-19 infection and COVID-19 vaccination

A preprint, an unpublished non-peer reviewed study, looks at thromboembolic events and thrombosis with thrombocytopenia after COVID-19 infection and after vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech or Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine in Catalonia, Spain.

What is the likelihood of breakthrough COVID infections after people are fully vaccinated?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use these responses in news stories, with attribution to the expert.

How serious might COVID infections be for fully vaccinated people?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use these responses in news stories, with attribution to the expert.

How should vaccinated people protect themselves and others from breakthrough infections?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use these responses in news stories, with attribution to the expert.

La efectividad de las vacunas ya ha cambiado la cara (y la cruz) de la pandemia

La vacunación ya ha salvado miles de vidas en España, y ha modificado el impacto de la covid-19 sobre la población. Incluso con una alta incidencia de contagios, el número de hospitalizaciones y muertes es mucho menor. No obstante mientras no se vacune a los más jóvenes serán necesarias las restricciones sociales. La pandemia aún no ha terminado.

Vaccine effectiveness has already changed the face (and reverse) of the pandemic

Vaccination has changed the impact of covid-19 on the population. Even with a high incidence, the number of hospitalisations and deaths is much lower. As long as young people are not vaccinated, social restrictions will be necessary. The pandemic is not over yet.

Why are fully vaccinated people still catching COVID-19?

As the Delta variant becomes dominant around the world there are both international and Australian reports of fully vaccinated people still becoming infected with COVID-19. These so-called 'breakthrough infections" have raised questions about the effectiveness of the vaccines. Data from some countries with high vaccination rates are also now showing more weekly cases of COVID-19 in vaccinated people than in the unvaccinated - does this mean the vaccines aren't working? Below Australian experts respond.

Welche Inzidenz können wir uns zukünftig erlauben? Ausblick auf die nahende COVID-19-Welle

Auch wenn die Gesamtinzidenz für Deutschland noch relativ niedrig liegt, sind hierzulande wieder exponentielle Wachstumsraten von rund 50 Prozent pro Woche erreicht. Schreibt sich das fort, müssten wir im September mit einer bundesweiten Inzidenz von 700 rechnen [siehe Corona-Report des SMC der vergangenen Woche I]. Vor allem jüngere Personen im Alter von 15 bis 29 Jahren infizieren sich derzeit mit SARS-CoV-2, allerdings steigen auch die Fallzahlen in den oberen Altersklassen. Eine Inzidenz von 15 entspricht aber aufgrund der gestiegenen Impfquote nicht mehr einer Inzidenz von 15 vorheriger Wellen. Zusätzlich zur Inzidenz soll deshalb nun auch – wie schon länger von Forschenden diskutiert [II] – die COVID-19-Situation in den Krankenhäusern als Indikator helfen, das aktuelle Infektionsgeschehen abzuschätzen [III]. Aber welche Grenzen sollen zukünftig gelten, um dem Virus durch zusätzliche Maßnahmen Einhalt zu gebieten, falls das Gesundheitssystem zu überlasten droht?

「第一劑新冠mRNA疫苗過敏者在接種第二劑的安全評估」專家意見

於今(2021)年7月26日台北時間23:00,發表在國際期刊《美國醫學會雜誌:內科醫學》(JAMA Internal Medicine)研究標題:「Safety Evaluation of the Second Dose of Messenger RNA COVID-19 Vaccines in Patients With Immediate Reactions to the First Dose」,此項研究觀察第一劑有過敏反應的患者在接種第二劑BNT/輝瑞疫苗或莫德納疫苗後的安全性。

Por que as pessoas totalmente vacinadas ainda estão pegando a COVID-19?

À medida que a variante Delta se torna dominante em todo o mundo, há relatos internacionais e australianos de pessoas totalmente vacinadas que ainda estão se infectando com COVID-19. Estas chamadas "infecções revolucionárias" levantaram questionamentos sobre a eficácia das vacinas. Os dados de alguns países com altas taxas de vacinação agora estão também mostrando mais casos semanais de COVID-19 em pessoas vacinadas do que em não vacinadas - isso significa que as vacinas não estão funcionando? Abaixo os especialistas australianos respondem.

Bakit ang mga taong kumpleto na ang bakuna ay nakukuha pa din ng COVID-19?

Habang lumalala ang Delta variant sa buong mundo, may mga ulat mula sa Australya at pati na rin mga ulat na pandaigdig tungkol sa mga taong ganap na bakunado na nagkakaimpeksyon pa rin ng COVID-19. Ang tinaguriang “pagkakahawa pagkatapos magpabakuna” o “breakthrough infection” sa Ingles ay naging sanhi ng mga tanong tungkol sa pagiging epektibo ng mga bakuna. Ipinapakita ngayon ng mga datos mula sa ilang mga bansang matataas ang antas ng pagbabakuna na mas marami ang lingguhang kaso ng COVID-19 sa mga taong bakunado kaysa sa mga hindi pa nababakunahan - ang ibig bang sabihin nito ay hindi gumagana ang mga bakuna? Sumagot ang mga eksperto sa Australya sa ibaba.

पूर्ण टीका करण के बावजूद भी लोग कोविड-19 से संक्रमित क्यों हो रहे हैं?

जैसे-जैसे डेल्टा का रूपांतर दुनिया भर में प्रभावी हो रहा है, वैसे-वैसे टीकाकरण पूरा हुए लोगों की कोविड-19 से संक्रमित होने की अंतर्राष्ट्रीय और ऑस्ट्रेलियाई रिपोर्टें मिल रही है। इन तथाकथित 'टीकों को तोड़ने वाले संक्रमणों" ने टीकों की प्रभावशीलता पर सवाल खड़े कर दिए हैं। जिन देशों में टीकाकरण की दर ज्यादा है वहां से मिल रहा डेटा भी बता रहा है कि कोविड-19 के साप्ताहिक मामले टीकाकरण वाले लोगों में अन्य लोगों के मुकाबले अधिक हैं - क्या इसका मतलब यह है कि टीके काम नहीं कर रहे हैं? नीचे ऑस्ट्रेलियाई विशेषज्ञ प्रतिक्रिया दे रहे हैं।

¿Por qué las personas completamente vacunadas todavía contraen COVID-19?

A medida que la variante Delta se convierte en la dominante a nivel mundial, hay informes tanto australianos como internacionales donde se reporta que incluso las personas con el esquema de vacunación completo siguen infectándose con COVID-19. Las llamadas "infecciones en vacunados" han hecho surgir dudas sobre la efectividad de las vacunas. Según datos de diferentes países con altas tasas de vacunación, se observan mas casos de COVID-19 de forma semanal entre personas vacunadas que entre aquellas que no lo están - ¿esto significa que las vacunas no están funcionando? A continuación responden expertos australianos.

لمَ لا يزال الأشخاص الذين تم تلقيحهم بشكل كامل يصابون بكوفيد-19؟

مع ازدياد انتشار متحوّر دلتا في جميع أنحاء العالم، أفادت تقارير دولية وأسترالية بوجود أشخاص يصابون بكوفيد-19 على الرغم من تلقيهم اللقاح الكامل. وقد أثار موضوع ما يُطلق عليه "عدوى الملقحين" تساؤلات حول مدى فعالية اللقاحات. تكشف البيانات من عدة دول تتمتع بارتفاع معدلات اللقاح عن أنه ترد الآن حالات إصابات بكوفيد-19 بين الملقحين أكثر من بين غير الملقحين، لكن هل يعني هذا أن اللقاحات غير فعالة؟ فيما يلي تعليق الخبراء الأستراليين.

What do scientists say about vaccinating children against COVID-19?

Children and teenagers are recommended to receive any COVID-19 vaccine allowed for emergency use as soon as it is available to them. Globally, the Pfizer vaccine has been deemed safe for children aged 12 years and older. COVID-19 vaccines are not yet available to children under 12 years old as safety trials for this population are underway.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 23 July

It is easy to get swamped by all the research on coronavirus. New Zealand’s Science Media Centre is keeping track of much of it so you don’t have to. The Research Tracker is prepared by Dr Robert Hickson for the Science Media Centre New Zealand. This week: more reports on the laboratory and real world effectiveness of different vaccines, poor countries missing out on vaccines, the antibodies that target SARS-CoV-2, and possible new therapies.

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About the Hub

The COVID-19 Vaccine Media Hub is a dedicated resource for journalists and fact checkers wanting access to evidence-based information on COVID-19 vaccines. The Hub brings together multiple sources of evidence-based information on vaccines, including explainers, expert commentary, the latest research and online press briefings, with material soon to be available in multiple languages.

If you’re a fact checker or a journalist, we’re here to help you find the information and experts you need for your story.

If you’re a member of the public and would like help finding information on COVID-19 vaccines, feel free to browse the site. You might also like to explore other evidence- based vaccine information sites such as the WHO's COVID-19 vaccine page.

This project is a global effort with contributions from Science Media Centres in Australia, the UK, Germany and New Zealand plus technology not-for-profit, Meedan. Other contributors are based in North America, Africa, Latin America and the Asia Pacific region.

The COVID-19 Vaccine Media Hub is supported by the Google News Initiative.

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Australian Science Media Centre

The Australian Science Media Centre works to enhance the media’s coverage of science, for the benefit of the public. We provide the evidence and experts when science hits the headlines.

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Information equity is a public health issue. Health Desk provides rapid responses to health questions from fact-checkers and journalists. We host content about COVID-19 vaccine created by Science Media Centres around the world.

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A non-profit and editorially independent institution that supports journalists in reporting on science-related topics.

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The SMC’s mission is to improve the public understanding of science by ensuring that the news media has easy access to the very best experts and evidence when science hits the headlines.

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When science meets the headlines, the SMCNZ is there to promote accurate, evidence-based reporting on science, health and technology by helping the media work more closely with the scientific community.

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AfriSMC was established by ScienceAfrica and Partners in September 2020 in Nairobi, Kenya, to improve the credibility of media reporting of emerging scientific issues, such as the Coronavirus pandemic.

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SMC Taiwan was established in 2017, as one of the international SMCs. SMC Taiwan is the only SMC in Asia connecting journalists and scientists to provide evidence-based information through the media. Please contact us if you require any assistance with reporting COVID-19. 關於疫情若需要任何進一步的專家意見,以協助民眾判讀各式科學資訊,都歡迎隨時聯繫我們。 SMC Taiwan是國際科學媒體中心的一員,唯一的亞洲科學家媒體媒合平台,會持續提供專家意見與相關研究討論,給各位媒體朋友們參考。

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Science makes the news. SINC is the public news agency specializing in science in Spain, depending on the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology. SINC offers its service to journalists and citizens: information, context and analysis from expert sources to shed light on the latest scientific news, with accuracy, veracity, and independence.