There is no scientific evidence to support using home or traditional therapies to prevent COVID-19 at this time. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other international health leaders say that caution is needed when considering “traditional remedies” as preventative measures or treatments for COVID-19, because they have not been widely studied and may cause harm in some cases.
There are many traditional remedies and home remedies that have been promoted to prevent COVID-19 infection. People have suggested using mouth or nasal washes, sprays, and creams (or fats) could prevent the virus from entering the body or kill the virus in the nasal cavity (nose) and throat before it has a chance to spread.
**Nasal (nose) washes:** There is no scientific evidence that suggests rinsing the inside of your nose will prevent COVID-19 infection. Additionally, for patients with COVID-19, researchers have raised a concern about using contaminated nasal rinse bottles (as well as surfaces and rinse fluids), suggesting they could be a source of exposure.
**Nasal (nose) sprays:** Ongoing studies seek to learn more about how saline, iodine, special soaps, and other ingredients used as nasal washes and sprays may help improve virus symptoms and decrease the spread of COVID-19.
One Israeli study published in November 2020, and recently re-released with updates as a pre-print in January 2021, shows promising results for a nasal spray known as Taffix. Taffix is a nasal inhaler approved for sale and used for the prevention of respiratory viral infections in Israel and some other countries. The 2020/2021 study analyzed 243 members of a Jewish ultra-orthodox synagogue community during a high holiday, in which individuals were gathered and praying throughout the day.
At the two-week follow-up mark of the event, the study investigators found that the individuals who used Taffix had a reduction in odds of COVID-19 infection by 78%, compared to those who did not use Taffix. Eighteen members out of the total 243 were infected with COVID-19, 16 in the no-Taffix group and 2 in the Taffix group, both of whom did not adhere to the recommended use.
Studies are ongoing to test over the counter and other types of nasal sprays for protection against COVID-19, with some showing early promise in lab and animal studies.
**Mouthwash, rinses, and gargle solutions:** Like nasal washes and sprays, there is no scientific evidence that suggests using mouthwashes, rinses, and gargles will prevent COVID-19 infection. Ongoing studies seek to learn about how special antiseptic mouthwashes may help prevent COVID-19 (see the Experimental Therapies section below). So far, many studies have explored these treatments in laboratory cells, and data on humans is limited.
**Alcohol, chlorine, or disinfectant spray:** Alcohol, chlorine (e.g. bleach solutions), or disinfectant sprays should never be sprayed or applied to your nose, mouth, or eyes, and doing so may cause serious harm. Drinking alcohol will not prevent or treat COVID-19.
**Fats or oils:** This includes coconut oil, ghee, sesame oil, shea butter, petroleum jelly, and others. There is no scientific evidence that nasal treatments or mouth rinses with different fats will prevent, treat, or cure COVID-19. While many types of fats or oils (like coconut oil, sesame oil, and others) have been shown to kill or stop bad bacteria in cell-based laboratory studies, most of these studies have focused on how these ingredients may be used to prevent bacterial growth on food to improve food safety. Studies have not looked at the effect of fats on prevention of viral or bacterial infections in humans when applied in the nose or used as a mouth rinse. There is no scientific evidence that supports the theory that using these oils would improve health or prevent illness. In addition, though rare, it is possible that inhaling fats from the inside of the nose can cause lung problems.
**Steam inhalation:** Though inhaling steam may help to thin mucous or relieve congestion (stuffy nose), there is no scientific evidence to suggest that inhaling steam will prevent or treat COVID-19. Contact with steaming hot water can cause burns, and inhaling steam can burn the inside of your nose.
**Experimental therapies:** There are ongoing studies using nasal sprays (and rinses) and special mouthwashes to prevent COVID-19, such as the Taffix study discussed above. Much of the current scientific evidence is based on animal or laboratory cell studies. For humans, efficacy and safety studies are ongoing, and most treatments are not recommended for the public at this time. Currently, studies seek to understand if nasal rinses (using saltwater, special soaps, and other ingredients) may help to improve symptoms and decrease the viral load in patients with COVID-19 (with the thought that decreasing the viral load could decrease how much an infected person may spread the virus). Researchers are also studying whether gargling or rinsing with special solutions (e.g. povidone-iodine) may help prevent healthcare workers from contracting COVID-19. A pre-print study or a nasal spray medication (INNA-051) has shown good results in preventing COVID-19 in ferrets, but human studies have not yet begun. Human study results for Taffix nasal spray and its pre-existing approval for prevention of respiratory viral infections makes it feasible for human use in protection against COVID-19; however, it is not a replacement for mask use and physical distancing.
To prevent COVID-19 infection, health authorities continue to recommend avoiding crowds, practicing social distancing measures (at least 6 feet/2 meters apart), frequent and careful handwashing, wearing face masks (wearing a cloth mask over a surgical mask is recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), staying home when possible (especially if you are sick), clean high-touch surfaces often, and avoid touching your nose, eyes, and mouth.