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Preguntas y respuestas sobre la dosis de refuerzo de la vacuna anticovid

En España. desde el 13 de enero el recuerdo contra la covid se recomienda a la población general adulta. El 78,8 % de los mayores de 50 y el 88,9 % de los mayores de 60 ya se lo han puesto, dijo ayer la ministra de Sanidad. Si los que faltan tienen dudas, aquí tratamos de resolverlas.

Webinar: How To Improve Covid-19 Coverage

Variants, vaccines and medications: What journalists need to know to improve COVID-19 coverage. This event, held in English, will be also be available via simultaneous translation to Arabic, French, Portuguese and Spanish on Thursday, Jan. 27, 2022 from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. U.S. Central Time (GMT -6)

Omicron is soaring, but what about the next variant?

Omicron has had a huge impact on the world in a matter of weeks – but while we are still grappling with this variant – should we be planning for the next variant (or the one after that)? Below Australian experts comment on the potential for new variants of concern and how the world should prepare.

Novavax becomes fourth COVID-19 vaccine provisionally approved for use in Australia

The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) has provisionally approved Novavax's COVID-19 vaccine NUVAXOID. Subject to approval from the Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI), the vaccine will be used as a primary vaccine for those 18 and older, but not yet as a booster or a vaccine for children

Can baking soda be used to prevent, treat, or cure COVID-19?

Baking Soda is not proven to be effective at preventing or curing COVID-19. Authorized vaccines against COVID-19 that have undergone clinical trials are the only preventative option, in addition to some recently authorized treatment pills, that are known so far to reduce the severity of illness and deaths due to COVID-19.

T細胞免疫對抗Omicron變種病毒 新聞稿

Omicron變種病毒自去(2021)年底爆發全球疫情至今,已因傳播快速引發全球擔憂新冠疫苗的保護力,是否會因為Omicron病毒而失效。台灣科技媒體中心綜整相關尚未同儕審核的預印本研究,指出不同研究多認為,人體由疫苗或感染病毒獲得的T細胞免疫反應,並沒有因為Omicron變種病毒而受到太大的影響,表示人體曾打疫苗或受新冠病毒感染後,仍帶有一定程度的保護力。

研究「T細胞免疫反應抵抗Omicron變種病毒」專家意見

議題背景: Omicron變種病毒從去年底爆發全球疫情至今,大家最關注的就是新冠疫苗的保護力是否會因為Omicron病毒而失效。科學家在2021年底初步用施打疫苗的血清做測試,發現這些血清對Omicron病毒的抗體反應有下降,但台灣科技媒體中心綜整至今(2022)年陸續發布尚未同儕審核的預印本研究,發現人體由疫苗或感染病毒獲得的T細胞免疫反應,並沒有因為Omicron變種病毒而受到太大的影響,表示人體過去打疫苗或受新冠病毒感染後,仍帶有一定程度的保護力。台灣科技媒體中心特邀專家對此給予意見。

¿Cuándo puedo recibir la tercera dosis si me he infectado recientemente?

España recomienda que aquellas personas que hayan sido infectadas por el coronavirus reciban la tercera dosis cuatro semanas después. Los expertos valoran la decisión desde el punto de vista inmunológico.

Endemic and seasonal, the future of coronavirus?

The terms "endemism" and "seasonality" are increasingly used to refer to the covid-19 pandemic. They are sometimes incorrectly associated with the severity of the disease or with the premature end of the pandemic. What do they mean? Does SARS-CoV-2 fit these definitions? Will it ever do so thanks to vaccines?

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 14 January

This week, vaccine effectiveness and/or safety in the elderly, pregnant women, and young children, and reduction in infectivity risk after vaccination. Non-vaccine papers on the short life of the virus in aerosols, hospitalisations of children with Covid-19, lags in development of children born during the pandemic, and models to predict or identify viral mutations of concern. The Research Tracker is prepared by Dr Robert Hickson for the NZ Science Media Centre.

解析「網傳謠言:只有完全接種疫苗的人才會得到Omicron」

謠言引用英國衛生安全局 (UKHSA) 疫苗監測報告,完全不能被解釋成「只有完整接種疫苗的人,才會害怕新的Omicron變種病毒」。反而,在該報告的第5頁清楚說明,現有的AZ、BNT和莫德納三支疫苗,在預防COVID-19重症和死亡方面仍是安全有效的。針對報告與謠言內容的落差,詳情請見完整解析。

Reacciones de inmunólogos españoles a estrategia de vacunación basada en sucesivos refuerzos a población general

El director de la Estrategia de Vacunas de la Agencia Europea del Medicamento (EMA), Marco Cavaleri, dijo el 11 de enero en rueda de prensa que “no es sostenible a largo plazo seguir dando dosis de recuerdo cada tres o cuatro meses [a la población general]”. Inmunólogos españoles coinciden en que no es lo adecuado. En estas reacciones explican por qué.

Endemia y estacionalidad, ¿el futuro del coronavirus?

Los términos “endemismo” y “estacionalidad” son cada vez más utilizados para hacer referencia a la pandemia de covid-19. A veces se asocian incorrectamente con la gravedad de la enfermedad o con el fin prematuro de la pandemia. ¿Qué significan? ¿Encaja el SARS-CoV-2 en estas definiciones? ¿Lo hará algún día gracias a las vacunas?

What do we know about sildenafil and COVID-19?

There is currently no cure for COVID-19. Researchers are currently studying what impacts, if any, Viagra and nitric oxide have against the virus.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 7 January

This week, data on Omicron keeps on coming and is consistent. One paper points to a weakness in nasal rapid antigen tests for Omicron. Vaccine safety data looks very good for children under 12. A new oral vaccine is under development. US modelling estimates how many lives were saved by their vaccination programme. There can be gender differences in the production of autoantibodies after infections. And, a case study of airborne transmission between MIQ rooms in NZ. The Research Tracker is prepared by Dr Robert Hickson for the NZ Science Media Centre.

「疫苗種類與不良反應的相關因素」研究摘要

在2021年12月22日,國際期刊《美國醫學會期刊》網路開放版(JAMA Network Open)刊登一篇研究「Analysis of COVID-19 Vaccine Type and Adverse Effects Following Vaccination」。研究指出,在這個真實世界的追蹤研究,雖然COVID-19疫苗會出現許多不良反應,包括:發燒、倦怠等,但嚴重的不良反應仍很少見。這些結果有助民眾更好理解COVID-19疫苗接種後,發生不良反應的真實狀況。

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 31 December

This week, papers on the reduced incubation period of Omicron, its lower severity, and benefits of three vaccine doses. However, there are indications of third dose effectiveness declining over a few months. Other papers look at the widespread distribution of SARS-CoV-2 throughout the body, cell fusion as a means of spread, and broad spectrum inhibitors that can be inhaled. The Research Tracker is prepared by Dr Robert Hickson for the NZ Science Media Centre.

Reacción al anuncio de que España reducirá cuarentenas y aislamientos a siete días

En los últimos días varios países han modificado los tiempos de las cuarentenas de contactos estrechos y los aislamientos de infectados, mientras que otros ya lo estudian. España ha anunciado que reducirá a 7 día estos periodos, tanto para personas que hayan dado positivo en un test como para contactos estrechos que requieran cuarentena (en el caso de nuestro país, personas sin vacunar).

Qué sabemos sobre ómicron al cierre de 2021

Los primeros trabajos sólidos sobre la capacidad de las vacunas para frenar la infección por la variante ómicron, que acaban de publicarse, refuerzan la necesidad de una tercera dosis. Los expertos recuerdan, no obstante, que el objetivo de las vacunas nunca fue frenar la infección, sino evitar la enfermedad grave. Resumimos lo que se sabe por ahora sobre ella.

What we know about omicron at year-end 2021

The first solid work on the ability of vaccines to stop infection with the omicron variant, which has just been published, reinforces the need for a third dose. Experts recall, however, that the aim of vaccines was never to stop infection, but to prevent severe disease. We summarize what is known so far about it.

Cómo los periodistas pueden evitar 'el hype' al cubrir los desarrollos de COVID-19 en América Latina

This briefing is available in Spanish. “How journalists can avoid ‘hype’ when covering COVID-19 developments in Latin America,” by Federico Kukso, an independent science journalist from Argentina who is a member of the board of directors of the World Federation of Science Journalists.

Five studies of the effectiveness of vaccines and antibody treatments against Omicron

Five studies published in Nature look at the effectiveness of vaccines and antibody treatments against the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 23 December

This week, a variety of studies on severity of Omicron, though the data is still limited. Plus, the genetic trade-offs and possible origins of the variant. More papers on waning vaccine effectiveness, as well as the greater infection risk to the unvaccinated. In non-vaccine papers, assessing variant fitness, why Covid-19 is often less severe in children, and why Covid-19 is not just a respiratory disease.

What do we know about COVID-19 reinfection and reactivation?

Reinfection with COVID-19 is possible and is much more likely to occur among unvaccinated people. Reactivation is different from reinfection. Reactivation occurs when a person who appears to have recovered from a virus still has small amounts of dormant virus in their body that becomes active again and can reactivate symptoms. Viral shedding is also separate from the two. Viral shedding is when the cells in your body that host the infection release virus particles that are then “shed” into the environment. These can be infectious or not infectious, but both can result in a positive COVID-19 test.

What do we know about eye problems related to COVID-19 vaccines?

Currently, there is no established causal link that connects mRNA COVID-19 vaccines to blindness or other eye problems. However, there are a number of case reports of blindness and other ocular side effects (eye problems) that have raised concerns among side effects and that are being researched to better understand if there is a causal link or not; it’s possible that there is but there have not been enough reports in reporting systems or studies to determine whether these side effects are due to the vaccines or due to coincidence.

Luchar contra la desinformación es fundamental para atender las dudas de las personas no vacunadas

Una encuesta realizada por el equipo COSMO-Spain para conocer los motivos por los que algunas personas todavía no se han vacunado mostró que la mayoría de ellas temen que las vacunas no sean seguras y sus efectos secundarios. Estos resultados resaltan la importancia de llevar a cabo una comunicación rigurosa de unos fármacos que todos los estudios y organismos consideran seguros y eficaces.

Reacción a la recomendación por parte de la EMA del uso de la vacuna de Novavax

La EMA ha recomendado hoy la autorización de la quinta vacuna frente a la covid-19 para mayores de 18 años: la estadounidense Novavax, la primera basada en una plataforma de proteínas recombinantes.

Reaction to the EMA recommendation of Novavax vaccine use

The EMA today recommended the licensure of the fifth covid-19 vaccine for persons over 18 years of age: the U.S.-based Novavax, the first based on a recombinant protein platform.

Study looking at how and when protection wanes after two doses of the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine

A study published in the Lancet looks at protection of two doses of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine against COVID-19 hospital admissions and deaths over time.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 17 December

This week, lots of small studies on reduced neutralisation of Omicron and the benefits of an extra vaccine dose, non-Omicron comparisons of vaccine effectives, and new data on Novavax effectiveness. Non-vaccine papers on the Merck and Pfizer Covid pills, the high proportion of asymptomatic cases, how different variants and other coronaviruses affect subsequent immune responses, and behavioural science lessons for improving pandemic responses. Plus, Nature articles on the pandemic year in review.

What do we know about booster shot efficacy against omicron?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

How will scientists know if new vaccine formulations are necessary for omicron boosters? Is this likely, given currently available data?

SciLine reaches out to our network of scientific experts and poses commonly asked questions about newsworthy topics. Reporters can use the video clips, audio, and comments below in news stories, with attribution to the scientist who made them.

Modelling of booster effectiveness against omicron by Imperial College London

Modelling by Imperial College London looks at booster vaccine effectiveness against the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2.

Explainer on why the new variant is called Omicron

Prof. Walter Jaoko’s responses to media queries on the new Omicron virus during an AfriSMC press briefing on What Scientists know about the new Covid-19 variant. Prof Jaoko is the Director KAVI-Institute of Clinical Research, University of Nairobi

Australian data on Omicron shows why boosters are key

In an ultrasecure lab at the Kirby Institute at the University of New South Wales, a team of researchers has been working to understand the Omicron variant and have released their first data on how effective vaccines are likely to be against the Omicron variant. In the lab, the researchers used three different methods to test how the variant stacks up against immunity from vaccination and natural infection, to give them the greatest confidence yet in the data. Come to this online briefing to hear from the Australian experts working on the front line with Omicron samples of the virus. Here experts comment on the new data.

La vacunación covid infantil con todo detalle: 17 preguntas y respuestas útiles

La recomendación es vacunar a niños y niñas de 5 a 11 años con la vacuna aprobada en Europa para este tramo, Comirnaty (Pfizer) con un tercio de la dosis usada en mayores de doce años. Pero padres y madres siguen teniendo dudas. Aquí respondemos a las clásicas (seguridad, riesgo/beneficio) y a otras más específicas: alergias, síndromes genéticos, personas de alto riesgo…

Children's covid vaccination in detail: 17 useful questions and answers

The recommendation is to vaccinate children from 5 to 11 years old with the vaccine approved in Europe for this age group, Comirnaty (Pfizer) with one third of the dose used in children over 12 years old. But parents still have doubts. Here we answer the classic ones (safety, risk/benefit) and other more specific ones: allergies, genetic syndromes, high-risk individuals...

Omicron變種病毒記者會 會後新聞稿

台灣科技媒體中心今日召開記者會,邀請專家解析Omicron變種病毒。出席記者會的兩名專家為中興大學獸醫病理生物學研究所所長吳弘毅、長庚大學新興病毒感染研究中心主任施信如。施信如與吳弘毅皆表示,從現在Omicron有限的資料來看,Omicron是否會對台灣造成嚴重影響仍未知,必須考量台灣的疫苗覆蓋率、防疫策略以及醫療量能。同時,台灣也須嚴密監測各國Omicron的疫情狀況和最新研究,以協助政府進行政策判斷。

Die Omikron-Variante – Status quo und Ausblick

Die im November identifizierte SARS-CoV-2-Variante Omikron breitet sich in Europa und im Süden Afrikas rasch aus. Die Weltgesundheitsorganisation WHO, die auf Basis erster Erkenntnisse Omikron am 26.11.2021 als besorgniserregende Variante eingestuft hat, rät ihren Mitgliedstaaten umgehend Maßnahmen einzuleiten, um die Verbreitung der Variante frühzeitig einzudämmen [I]. Im Vereinigten Königreich verdoppeln sich die Infektionszahlen mit Omikron aktuell alle zwei bis drei Tage, der R-Wert liegt bei 3,7 [II]. Omikron besitzt eine Vielzahl von Mutationen, die es der Variante ermöglichen, sich noch schneller zu verbreiten als Delta und einer bestehenden Immunität zumindest teilweise zu entkommen. Vergangene Woche publizierten mehrere Forschungsgruppen erste Erkenntnisse zur Immunflucht der Variante und zeigten im Laborversuch eine etwa 40-fach reduzierte neutralisierende Wirkung der Antikörper gegen Omikron im Vergleich zur Delta-Variante. Eine Auswertung aus dem Vereinigten Königreich weist darauf hin, dass der Schutz vor einer symptomatischen Infektion bei zweifach geimpften Personen stark reduziert ist. Eine dritte, sogenannte Booster-Impfung erhöht die Impfstoffwirksamkeit allerdings wieder auf 70 bis 75 Prozent [III]. Dass eine Booster-Impfung den Schutz durch neutralisierende Antikörper wieder erhöhen kann, zeigten auch Labordaten von Pfizer und Biontech. Weitgehend unklar ist bis jetzt, inwiefern sich Omikron auf den Krankheitsverlauf vor allem bei Personen ohne Immunschutz auswirkt. Darüber hinaus bleibt zu klären, inwiefern eine bereits überstandene Infektion oder eine zweifache Impfung weiterhin vor schweren Krankheitsverläufen schützt, selbst wenn es durch Omikron erneut zu einer Infektion kommt. Wie stark hat sich die Virusvariante in Europa bereits verbreitet? Und können Booster-Impfungen sowie die angedachten Maßnahmen der WHO eine weitere Infektionswelle noch verhindern? Diese Fragen – und Ihre – erläuterten Fachleute in einem 50-minütigen Press Briefing. Video-Mitschnitt & Transkript: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TiI4-bra3P0&t=14s

Omicron變種病毒 台灣科技媒體中心新聞稿

國內境外移入已出現變種病毒Omicron案例,引發國人擔憂。「台灣科技媒體中心」今(14)日說明,目前僅略知Omicron會造成曾染疫者再次染疫的風險增加。不過,初次感染比率卻下降。雖然南非的Omicron感染案例增加迅速,英國最主要的變種病毒還是Delta,Omicron病毒的傳播力尚待研究證實。

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 10 December - Omicron edition

Early data on reduced neutralisation of Omicron after prior infections or vaccinations.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 10 December - Non-vaccine edition

Non-vaccine papers this week include the risk to the baby when the mother has Covid-19 while pregnant, viral loads as an indicator of infectiousness, the effectiveness of masks, and the evolution of the virus.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 10 December - Vaccine edition

This week, comparing the effectiveness of different vaccines and different “booster” shots, long term effectiveness of Moderna’s vaccine, reduced risk of long Covid after vaccination, and vaccinated people who die may have much higher viral loads than unvaccinated fatal cases.

Reacción a los primeros datos de laboratorio sobre cómo responden los anticuerpos ante la variante ómicron

En los últimos días han empezado a llegar datos, prepublicaciones, notas de prensa e incluso gráficas a través de redes sociales que muestran cómo se comportan los anticuerpos neutralizantes frente a la variante ómicron. Estos estudios son preliminares y habrá que esperar antes de saber cómo se traducen estos datos de laboratorio en el mundo real.

Expert Reaction to early laboratory data on how antibodies respond to the omicron variant

In the last few days, data, pre-publications, press releases and even graphs have started to arrive through social networks showing how neutralizing antibodies behave against the Omicron variant. These studies are preliminary and we will have to wait before we know how these laboratory data translate into the real world, experts say.

How do the vaccines hold up against Omicron? Preliminary data suggests reduced antibody neutralisation

Pfizer has reported that results from preliminary studies suggest two doses of the Pfizer vaccine have a significantly reduced ability to neutralise the Omicron variant, and that three doses may be needed. A small study from South Africa, which is not yet peer reviewed, has also suggested that antibody neutralisation is reduced by around 40-fold against Omicron compared to the original Wuhan virus. A third early study, which is also yet to be peer reviewed, has also shown a significant drop in the ability of vaccine generated antibodies to neutralise the virus.

Reacción rápida sobre vacunación covid pediátrica en España

La Comisión de Salud Pública (CSP) del Sistema Nacional de Salud español aprobó el pasado 7 de diciembre la vacunación de los niños de 5-11 años frente a la covid-19. Adjuntamos declaraciones al respecto del coordinador de la Comisión de Vacunas de la Asociación Española de Pediatría, Francisco Álvarez García, así como otros recursos periodísticos sobre este tema.

There is no evidence that mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are associated with miscarriages

There is no evidence that COVID-19 mRNA vaccines cause or are associated with increased risks for miscarriages.

Expert reaction on pediatric covid vaccination in Spain

The Public Health Commission (CSP) of the Spanish National Health System approved last December 7 the vaccination of children aged 5-11 against covid-19. Attached are statements by the coordinator of the Vaccine Commission of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics, Francisco Álvarez García, as well as other journalistic resources on this subject.

Vaccinating the World Against COVID-19: Insights into Lesser Known Vaccines and the Effectiveness of Established Vaccines Around the World

By the end of November, a staggering eight billion doses of COVID-19 vaccines had been administered worldwide, with around 31 million being administered daily. Yet only six percent of people in low-income countries have received at least one dose of vaccine, and many countries in Africa and Asia are lagging behind. While many wealthy countries are already receiving a third booster dose of COVID-19, in many low-income countries health workers and even the most at risk are still waiting for the first vaccination with any of the COVID-19 vaccines available. What vaccines are used in low-income countries to fight COVID-19? What do we know about their effectiveness and safety? Most experts agree that the most effective vaccination strategy would be an equitable global distribution of COVID-19 vaccines to protect the most vulnerable first - no matter where they live. If the world does not succeed in distributing the available vaccines fairly by 2022, new SARS-CoV-2 immune escape variants could emerge in less protected population groups, which would pose a future risk for all citizens.

Erste Daten zum Immunschutz gegen Omikron-Variante

Gleich mehrere Analysen des Immunschutzes gegen die neue SARS-CoV-2-Variante Omikron sind in den vergangenen Stunden veröffentlicht worden. Sie alle zeigen nach verschiedenen Kombinationen von Impfungen und natürlicher Infektion eine stark, circa 40-fach reduzierte neutralisierende Wirkung von Antikörpern, das Virus zu binden und den Eintritt in die menschliche Zelle – also eine Infektion – zu verhindern. Omikron hat damit das Potenzial, der Immunantwort des Körpers zum Teil zu entgehen. Ergebnisse zur Schutzwirkung der zellulären Bestandteile des Immunsystems, wie B- und vor allem T-Zellen, vor einer schweren COVID-19-Erkrankung fehlen weiterhin. Aus Deutschland stammen erste Daten von dem Team aus Forschenden rund um Sandra Ciesek vom Universitätsklinikum Frankfurt. Sie isolierten das Virus aus Proben eines sehr früh am Frankfurter Flughafen entdeckten Person mit Omikron-Infektion und züchteten es im Labor an. Ihre Ergebnisse sind mittlerweile als vorläufige Publikation auf der Preprint-Plattform „medrxiv“ verfügbar [I]. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine bis zu 37-fach reduzierte neutralisierende Wirkung der Antikörper im Vergleich zur Delta-Variante. Die Daten deuten allerdings ebenfalls daraufhin, dass Auffrischungsimpfungen oder eine zweifache Impfung plus Durchbruchsinfektion noch eine stärkere Wirkung gegen die Variante entfalten können als die Immunantwort zweifach geimpfter Menschen (zuvor stand hier fälschlicherweise, dass es sich um der Impfung vorausgegangene Infektionen handelt; Anm. d. Red.). Auf einen vorteilhafteren Schutz nach durchgemachter Infektion plus einer zweifachen Impfung mit dem Impfstoff von Pfizer/Biontech deuten auch weitere Ergebnisse aus einem Labor in Durban in Südafrika hin. Die Forschenden teilten ebenfalls erste Ergebnisse aus Neutralisationsversuchen in Lebendkulturen des Virus in einem vorläufigen Manuskript. Zwar fanden auch sie eine deutliche Reduktion der neutralisierenden Wirkung der Antikörper um das circa 41-Fache nach einer doppelten Impfung, allerdings zeigte sich ein deutlich positiveres Bild bei der Immunantwort von zuvor infizierten Personen mit doppelter Impfung. Ein drittes Ergebnis, das eine weniger stark abnehmende neutralisierende Wirkung andeutet, stammt von Forschenden aus Südafrika und Schweden. Sie machten allerdings Versuche mit einer künstlich hergestellten Form des Virus (Pseudovirus) und unterschieden ihre Daten nicht nach dem Impfstatus der Probanden. Die Unternehmen Pfizer und Biontech veröffentlichten ebenfalls heute erste Ergebnisse ihrer Untersuchungen zu Omikron. Demnach sind nach einer dritten Dosis des firmeneigenen Impfstoffs Comirnaty die neutralisierenden Antikörpertiter im Vergleich zu zwei Dosen gegen die Omikron-Variante um das 25-Fache erhöht. Die Neutralisationswirkung nach der Auffrischungsdosis sei vergleichbar mit jener nach zwei Dosen gegen das Wildtyp-Virus. Eine dritte Dosis erhöht den Daten zufolge auch stark die Spiegel der sogenannten CD8+ T-Zellen gegen mehrere Strukturen des Spike-Proteins, was für einen Schutz vor schwerer Krankheit sprechen würde. Auch Pfizer/Biontech führten ihre Tests mit einem Pseudovirus durch. Wie die Ergebnisse in der Zusammenschau einzuordnen sind und was sie für die aktuelle Situation bedeuten, beantworten Fachleute. Weitere Statements sind angefragt.

Lab study from South Africa looking at omicron and extent of Pfizer vaccine immune escape

A preprint, an unpublished non-peer reviewed study, suggests that the omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 has extensive but incomplete escape of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine elicited neutralization and requires ACE2 for infection.

Press release from Pfizer-BioNTech about omicron and neutralising antibody titres after two and three vaccine doses

The press release from Pfizer and BioNTech provides an update on the omicron variant from preliminary laboratory studies.

What do we know about the Omicron variant?

The Omicron variant is a new, likely highly transmissible COVID-19 variant with many mutations. It was first detected in South Africa in November 2021 and later that month was deemed a Variant of Concern by the World Health Organization.

Com-COV2 study looking at different combinations of first and second vaccine doses

A study published in The Lancet looks at immunogenicity, safety, and reactogenicity of heterologous COVID-19 primary vaccination incorporating mRNA, viral-vector, and protein-adjuvant vaccines in the UK (Com-COV2).

Por qué la vacunación no está llegando a África y qué se puede hacer para cambiarlo

“La equidad en la distribución de las vacunas no es cuestión de caridad; beneficia a todos los países”, dijo Tedros Adhanom, director de la OMS. Sin embargo sus datos hablan de un reparto muy desigual: más del 80 % delas vacunas han ido a países del G20, mientras que los países pobres, africanos en su mayoría, han recibido solo el 0,6 %. Tres expertos españoles analizan qué ha fallado.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 3 December - Vaccine edition

This week, how vaccination can affect transmission and viral dynamics, immune responses to longer intervals between doses, three doses better than two, why Adenovirus-based vaccines may lead to increased blood clotting, and modelling vaccination impacts in NZ.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 3 December - Non-vaccine edition

This week, patience needed for understanding Omicron impacts, but data is being quickly gathered. Plus, more data on the effectiveness of Covid pills, dysregulated immune responses with severe Covid, severe Covid and subsequent mortality risks, and long Covid and chronic fatigue syndrome. Also, a further call to establish a global health threats council, and using smart watches as early warnings of infections. Two New Zealand papers - the lockdown impacts GPs, and assessing the utility of rapid antigen tests here.

Why vaccination isn't reaching Africa and what can be done to change it

"Equity in the distribution of vaccines is not a matter of charity; it benefits all countries," said Tedros Adhanom, director of the WHO. However, his data speak of a very unequal distribution: more than 80 % of the vaccines have gone to G20 countries, while poor countries, mostly African, have received only 0.6 %. Three Spanish experts analyze what went wrong.

Qué sabemos de la efectividad de las vacunas frente a ómicron

La nueva variante B.1.1.529, apodada ómicron, se ha extendido por el planeta y nuevos países anuncian su detección cada día que pasa. Mientras se investigan cuestiones como si es más transmisible, la mayor pregunta es la que rodea su relación con las vacunas. ¿Dejarán de ser efectivas? ¿Será esta la variante que escape de nuestro sistema inmunitario? Varios expertos responden.

Study looking at a possible mechanism for the VITT associated with the adenovirus COVID-19 vaccines

A study published in Science Advances looks at a possible mechanism for vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) associated with adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccines.

COV-BOOST study investigating safety and immunogenicity of seven COVID-19 vaccines as a third dose following two doses of either Oxford-AstraZeneca or Pfizer

A study published in the Lancet looks at the safety and immunogenicity of seven COVID-19 vaccines as a third (booster) dose following two doses of Oxford-AstraZeneca or Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine in the UK.

Do COVID-19 vaccines reduce death?

Recent research published in the New England Journal of Medicine, and conducted in Scotland examined the protective effect of vaccination against COVID-19 found that vaccination was 90% effective in preventing death. This study is the first of its kind to be conducted across the entire country to examine how effective the vaccines are in preventing death from COVID-19. The majority of cases studied were infected with the Delta variant. Researchers reported that vaccination with the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine and the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was 91%, and 90% effective in preventing deaths, respectively, among people who have received two doses of each vaccine. 

Are unvaccinated people not getting ailments such as myocarditis, pericarditis, blood clots, strokes or heart attacks?

People who have not been vaccinated are still being impacted with heart issues such as myocarditis, pericarditis, blood clots, strokes, heart attacks, and other ailments just as they were before the pandemic began. However, COVID-19 increases the risk of blood clots and many other health issues dramatically. People who have not been vaccinated against the virus face much higher risks of severe symptoms from an infection than those who have been fully vaccinated.

Will vaccines still work against the new Omicron variant?

With Christmas just around the corner the new Omicron variant has arrived to throw a COVID shaped spanner in the works. Below Australian experts try to answer your burning questions about this new variant and what it means for our current vaccines

Por qué el modelo de donación de vacunas a África no ha funcionado bien: análisis de expertos y recursos

La OMS, el Fondo Africano para la Adquisición de Vacunas (AVAT, siglas en inglés), el Centro Africano para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (Africa CDC) y COVAX −la iniciativa global para lograr el acceso universal a las vacunas contra la COVID-19− solicitaron ayer a países donantes y a los fabricantes de vacunas, en un comunicado, que las donaciones se hagan de manera que realmente sea posible usarlas en los países de destino. Con donaciones a última hora, en las que no se ha podido planificar la logística necesaria, el riesgo de que las dosis caduquen “aumenta de forma dramática”. La mayoría de donaciones hasta ahora se han hecho así, y “la tendencia debe cambiar”, dice el comunicado. Adjuntamos análisis de tres expertos españoles en esta área, y otros recursos y datos.

「Omicron變種病毒(B.1.1.529)」專家意見

南非發現新的新冠病毒變異株B.1.1.52,世界衛生組織已經於今(2021)年11月26日正式以希臘字母命名為Omicron,列為「受關切變種(VOC)」。 世界衛生組織公布有關Omicron變種病毒已知的資訊:Update on Omicron、Classification of Omicron (B.1.1.529): SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern 國外由南非國家傳染病研究所(NICD)的潘妮.摩爾博士(Dr. Penny Moore)和南非德班健康研究所(African Health Research Institute in Durban)的艾力克斯.西格爾博士(Dr. Alex Sigal)分別領導的研究團隊,也正在加緊研究Omicron變種病毒對疫苗效力的可能影響,以及它的傳播力。

Reacción rápida al primer caso de la variante ómicron detectado en España

El descubrimiento de la variante ómicron ha llevado a cancelar vuelos con diversos países africanos, mientras numerosos países empiezan a detectar casos entre viajeros procedentes de países como Sudáfrica, pero también Nigeria y Egipto. España acaba de anunciar el primer caso detectado de ómicron, que corresponde a un viajero que había visitado Sudáfrica. ¿Qué medidas habría que tomar para frenar la expansión de esta variante? ¿Es siquiera posible?

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 26 November

This week, more papers on boosted immune responses from additional vaccine doses, and the waning effectiveness against infection beyond three months. The difficulties of studying the impacts of vaccines on long Covid, vaccine safety for 12-18 year olds, correlates of protection for the Moderna vaccine, and new vaccines under development. Non-vaccine papers include a discussion about a new variant, an antiviral drug from a plant, how the lethality of infections changed in late 2020, accumulating evidence for the outbreak origin, and what we still don’t know about bat coronaviruses.

Reacción rápida sobre nueva variante detectada en Sudáfrica, B.1.1.529

Se ha identificado en Sudáfrica una nueva variante del coronavirus causante de la COVID-19, con numerosas mutaciones presentes en otras variantes, incluida la Delta. La variante B.1.1.529, como se la llama por ahora, parece propagarse con rapidez en Sudáfrica. Adjuntamos la reacción rápida de tres investigadores españoles expertos en vigilancia genómica.

What do we know about mixing COVID-19 vaccines with medications?

COVID-19 vaccines are not impacted by the large majority of prescription and over-the-counter medications people may take, even people over the age of 60. However, certain medications might impact how effective the vaccines can be be in people who take them regularly. Immunosuppressive medications and other medications that affect the immune system—including chemotherapy and steroids like prednisone—may decrease the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. The vast majority of prescription medications do not affect the immune system.

「混打AZ/BNT新冠疫苗」研究與專家意見

不同種類與廠牌的新冠疫苗混打,研究怎麼說?台灣科技媒體中心整理現有的混打疫苗相關文獻與專家意見。 混打疫苗的優點:提供更好的疫苗接種選擇給暴露在高傳染風險的族群、對第一劑疫苗的廠牌有過敏反應者。 混打疫苗的科學不確定性:副作用、保護力的持久性、是否需要第三劑。 更新日期:2021年11月26日

Expert reaction on the new variant B.1.1.529 detected in South Africa

A new variant of the coronavirus causing COVID-19 has been identified in South Africa, with numerous mutations present in other variants, including Delta. The B.1.1.529 variant, as it is now called, appears to be spreading rapidly in South Africa. Attached is the rapid reaction of four Spanish researchers with expertise in genomic surveillance.

Study looking at COVID infection risk as time increases after second Pfizer vaccine dose in Israel

A study published in The BMJ looks at time since receiving the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

「可引發T細胞免疫力的COVID-19蛋白質疫苗」專家意見

今(2021)年11月24日,國際期刊《自然》(Nature)發表一篇研究,此研究第一期試驗收集平均18-80歲的36人,施打一劑以蛋白質為基礎的CoVac-1疫苗,間隔28天和56天後,分析兩種T細胞(表現出CD4和CD8這兩種抗原的T細胞)的免疫反應,以及免疫原性(使T細胞、B細胞產生免疫反應的抗原之特性)與安全性。

Por qué la mascarilla y la distancia son importantes justo ahora, que nos hemos vacunado

El mensaje de que hay que seguir protegiéndose con mascarilla, distancia, ventilación y lavado de manos se repite desde el comienzo de la vacunación, pero en pleno repunte de la pandemia en Europa cobra aún más importancia. Varias expertas advierten de que la alta cobertura vacunal en España mitigará la nueva ola pero no la eliminará: aunque las vacunas previenen la enfermedad grave, no son un escudo infranqueable y deben ser complementadas con medidas de comportamiento.

Why masks and distance are important just now that we have been vaccinated

The message that we must continue to protect ourselves with masks, distance, ventilation and hand washing has been repeated since the beginning of vaccination, but in the midst of the pandemic in Europe it is even more important. Several experts warn that the high vaccination coverage in Spain will mitigate the new wave but will not eliminate it: although vaccines prevent serious disease, they are not an insurmountable shield and must be complemented with behavioral measures.

What side effects have been associated with Sinovac’s vaccine?

Published data on phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials reports that the most common side-effect of the Sinovac vaccine is pain at the site of the injection, which is also common with other available COVID-19 vaccines. According to the World Health Organization’s information on the safety of this vaccine, this is the only side-effect that is related to the vaccine with certainty. Other mild side effects have been reported such as headache, fatigue and muscle pain, which resolved after two days, and researchers noted that they occurred in both the study group that took the vaccine, as well as the group that took the placebo (did not receive the vaccine for comparison). The studies also reported a lower chance of developing fever as a side-effect of this vaccine when compared to other COVID-19 vaccines. 

¿Son efectivas las medidas punitivas sobre las personas no vacunadas contra la covid?

Países europeos están aplicando estrategias anticovid en la población sin vacunar. Austria hará la vacunación obligatoria tras extender su confinamiento dirigido a los no vacunados a toda la población. En Alemania, las personas sin inmunizar tienen acceso restringido a restaurantes y hoteles, y deben mostrar un test negativo en el transporte público. Eslovaquia también ha impuesto restricciones a quienes han decidido no vacunarse. Suecia introducirá un pasaporte covid en eventos de más de cien personas. ¿Qué efecto tienen estas políticas?

Are punitive measures on unvaccinated people against covid effective?

European countries are implementing antiviral strategies in the unvaccinated population. Austria will make vaccination mandatory after extending its confinement targeting the unvaccinated to the entire population. In Germany, the unimmunized have restricted access to restaurants and hotels, and must show a negative test on public transport. Slovakia has also imposed restrictions on those who have chosen not to be vaccinated. Sweden will introduce a covid passport at events of more than 100 people. What is the effect of these policies?

AstraZeneca announcing new analyses of two AZD7442 COVID-19 Phase III trials in high-risk populations confirm robust efficacy and long-term prevention

The press release from AstraZeneca suggests six-month follow-up of their prevention trial showed 83% reduced risk of symptomatic COVID-19 and no severe disease or deaths with their long-acting antibody (LAAB) combination, AZD7442.

「細胞的醣脂會協助COVID-19的感染」專家意見

來自《自然》(Nature)的子期刊《自然化學生物學》(Nature Chemical Biology)刊登一項最新研究:「Sialic acid-containing glycolipids mediate binding and viral entry of SARS-CoV-2」,由加拿大阿爾伯塔大學 (University of Alberta)的研究團隊發現,人類細胞上的的唾液酸醣脂(Sialic acid-containing glycolipids)結構,會協助新冠病毒(SARS-CoV-2)與細胞結合,並促進病毒進入細胞內。這項最新的細胞研究表明,新冠病毒的受體結合區域(RBD)與唾液酸的醣脂(Sia)之間的相互作用,在病毒感染的過程中,扮演很重要的關係。 台灣科技媒體中心特邀分子病毒流行病學領域的專家,對此篇研究解析與評論。

「癌友施打疫苗與感染COVID-19研究」專家意見

隨著各國持續放寬 COVID-19 限制,高傳染性的 Delta 變異株,加劇了弱勢族群在疫苗持久性和效力的擔憂,比如癌症患者。儘管癌症患者大多列為優先施打族群,但他們並未納入關鍵的疫苗研究中,因此對他們的感染和疫苗接種反應所知甚少。 在今(2021)年10月27日的,國際期刊《自然癌症》(Nature Cancer)刊登一項大型研究計畫的兩篇報告,標題分別為「Adaptive immunity and neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern following vaccination in patients with cancer: the CAPTURE study」,以及「Functional antibody and T cell immunity following SARS-CoV-2 infection, including by variants of concern, in patients with cancer: the CAPTURE study」。 由英國弗朗西斯·克里克研究所(The Francis Crick Institute)癌症動力學實驗室的薩姆拉·圖拉傑利克(Samra Turajlic)主導的臨床試驗項目:CAPTURE(NCT03226886),依據試驗的部分結果發表了兩篇觀察性研究,分別發現了兩個重要結果。這項研究在COVID-19流行期間,對癌友的醫療照護上有重要的影響。 在第一篇研究中,評估施打AZ或BNT疫苗的585名不同癌別的患者,對Alpha, Beta, Delta的中和抗體水平,顯示血癌患者補打第三劑是有好處的。第二篇研究發現,在118名未施打疫苗的癌症患者中,固態腫瘤的患者可發展出耐受性良好的中和抗體,而血癌患者則顯示較差的體液免疫(B細胞)能力。 台灣科技媒體中心特邀病毒感染研究領域的專家,對此篇研究解析與評論。

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 12 November

This week, the safety of vaccines for under 12’s, mRNA vaccines are more effective than adenovirus-based ones, and the immunity boost from a prior infection. Non-vaccine papers include discussions of Pfizer’s Covid pill, the millions of years of life lost to Covid, genetic factors influencing disease severity, and factors influencing transmission. It is easy to get swamped by all the research on coronavirus. New Zealand’s Science Media Centre is keeping track of much of it so you don’t have to. The Research Tracker is prepared by Dr Robert Hickson for the Science Media Centre New Zealand. 

What do we know about COVID-19 transmission in vaccinated individuals?

Several recent studies have reached similar conclusions around transmission of COVID-19 among vaccinated individuals: 1. Individuals who are fully vaccinated transmit the virus less than those who are partially vaccinated (received one dose only) and unvaccinated individuals have the highest risk of transmission. 2. Vaccines are less effective against preventing transmission of the Delta variant, when compared to other variants of COVID-19.  Vaccines can reduce transmission by preventing infections and reducing the amount of infectious virus in someone’s body if they do get sick. However, the exact rate of transmission among vaccinated individuals (though it is rare) is still uncertain. A lot of cases of infection in vaccinated people do not progress to symptomatic disease, making it harder to know who is sick and collect data on how contagious they may be. 

「mRNA新冠疫苗與心肌炎的研究」專家意見

今(2021)年7月20日,醫學期刊《循環》(Circulation)發表一篇屬於短篇綜論(Primer)的文章,整合有關mRNA新冠疫苗與心肌炎的既有文獻,以及已發表的數據。台灣科技媒體中心特邀專家回應,期望基於科學證據,讓大眾更正確的理解COVID-19 mRNA疫苗與施打疫苗後的心肌炎事件。 【更新台灣的COVID-19 mRNA疫苗施打資訊】:11月10日指揮中心指揮官陳時中表示,衛福部預防接種諮詢委員會(ACIP)專家討論後,決定先行暫緩青少年接種BNT第2劑,將再討論2週,藉此再決定要不要施打第2劑。

「新冠陰性的血清中特殊T細胞的研究」專家意見

今(2021)年11月11日,國際期刊《自然》(Nature)發表一篇研究,藉由研究被檢測新冠病毒陰性的人血清中的免疫反應,探討暴露在新冠病毒風險下的人沒有感染病毒的可能原因。研究團隊假設既有的記憶性T細胞會對新冠病毒產生反應,有保護效果的潛力,可快速的控制病毒與中斷感染。因此運用PCR檢測陰性的醫護人員血清,針對病毒感染宿主後複製過程的一個複合體(轉錄複製複合體,簡稱RTC)的T細胞,量測其免疫反應。研究中提到,結果顯示出針對RTC的T細胞(RTC-specific T-cells),是設計新興冠狀病毒疫苗時可納入考量的目標。

Is the Pfizer vaccine safe for kids aged 5 - 11?

Two doses of the Pfizer vaccine has been found to be safe, immunogenic, and efficacious in a trial of 1500 children aged 5 -11 years of age in a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

What we know about covid-19 vaccination in children aged 5 - 11

The United States has already approved the vaccination of children between 5 and 11 years of age against covid-19. In Europe, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) will make a decision in the coming weeks on the use of the Comirnaty vaccine in this population. This is what several Spanish pediatricians think about it.

「醫護接種疫苗與無症狀新冠感染的檢測」專家意見

今(2021)年11月11日,國際期刊《美國醫學會期刊》網路開放版(JAMA Network Open)發表一篇研究,分析了在退伍軍人健康管理局 (VHA) 長期照護機構中,接受頻繁、強制性SARS-CoV-2檢測(RT-PCR與抗原檢測)的近2,000名醫護人員。研究計算了新冠檢測後合適樣本的敘述性統計資料和檢測陽性率,依照疫苗接種的狀態分為5個時間區段。結果發現,比起未接種疫苗的醫護人員,有接種疫苗者與無症狀SARS-CoV-2感染的檢測下降有關。

What do we know about tromethamine in COVID-19 vaccines?

This use of tromethamine in approved COVID-19 vaccines is safe. There is no evidence that COVID-19 vaccines with tromethamine cause serious adverse health effects. There is also no evidence that tromethamine was added to “stabilize patients” from any negative health effects of the COVID-19 vaccines. Instead, pharmaceutical companies have repeatedly stated that tromethamine is used to stabilize the vaccine itself and lengthen the time doses can be kept in storage.

SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in breastmilk after COVID-19 infection versus after COVID-19 vaccination

A study published in JAMA Paediatrics looks at breastmilk antibody induction, persistence, and neutralizing capacity after SARS-CoV-2 infection vs after mRNA vaccination.

What do we know about vaccines in teens?

COVID-19 vaccines do not impact development, puberty, or fertility in teenagers or children. It is not possible for the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines made by Pfizer or Moderna to interfere with a child's genetics. Like other childhood vaccines, these new immunizations will not impact puberty or fertility in teenagers.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 5 November - Vaccine edition

This week, comparing the immune effective of vaccinations and natural infections, the benefits of a prior infection plus vaccination, effectiveness of mixing-and-matching vaccines and third doses, a skin patch vaccine delivery system, modifying vaccines for variants, comparing the neurological risks from Covid-19 and vaccinations, and the effectiveness of vaccines for immunocompromised people. It is easy to get swamped by all the research on coronavirus. New Zealand’s Science Media Centre is keeping track of much of it so you don’t have to. The Research Tracker is prepared by Dr Robert Hickson for the Science Media Centre New Zealand.

Coronavirus Research Tracking - 5 November - Non-vaccine edition

This week non-vaccine papers include the potential of long lasting immunity from natural infections, assessing the cognitive effects of Covid-19, potential new therapies, how infection disrupts the blood system, estimating infections early in the pandemic and in less developed countries, controlling infections in schools, and white-tailed deer as a possible reservoir for SARS-CoV-2.

Qué sabemos sobre la vacuna a niños de 5 a 11 años

Estados Unidos ya ha aprobado la vacunación de niños de entre 5 y 11 años contra la covid-19. En Europa, la Agencia Europea del Medicamento (EMA) se pronunciará las próximas semanas sobre el uso de la vacuna Comirnaty en esa población. Esto es lo que varios pediatras españoles opinan al respecto.

Reacción al estudio que analiza la generación de células T específicas de memoria tras la vacunación con Pfizer

Un estudio ha monitorizado las respuestas de los linfocitos T a la espícula del SARS-CoV-2 en 71 donantes sanos que recibieron las dos dosis de la vacuna de Pfizer. Tras un seguimiento de hasta seis meses los investigadores vieron que se generaban y mantenían células de memoria específicas que persistieron durante al menos seis meses.

Reaction to the study analyzing the generation of specific memory T cells after vaccination with Pfizer.

A study has monitored T-lymphocyte responses to the SARS-CoV-2 spike in 71 healthy donors who received both doses of Pfizer's vaccine. After follow-up for up to six months the researchers saw that specific memory cells were generated and maintained that persisted for at least six months.

How do vaccine doses work in children?

Unlike some medications, height and weight are not very important when considering vaccine dosages against COVID-19. The dosage for COVID-19 vaccines are based on age, not size. Children aged 5-11 receive 10 microgram injections three weeks apart. Kids 12-17 and older get 30 microgram dosages three weeks apart. Children still produce very robust immune system responses with smaller dosages.

Reacción al estudio que analiza la transmisión de delta en domicilios británicos

Un análisis de 602 contactos comunitarios de 471 casos índice de covid-19 indica que la tasa de ataque secundaria (TAS) para contactos domiciliarios expuestos a la variante delta es del 25 % en individuos completamente vacunados, frente al 38 % en individuos sin vacunar.

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